Flashcards in The Nervous System Deck (40):
What does the CNS consist of?
Spinal cord and brain
What does the PNS consist of?
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
What can the autonomic nervous system be split into?
What sort of actions is the somatic nervous system involved in?
What sort of actions is the autonomic nervous system involved in?
Which part of the nervous system conveys sensory information to the CNS and motor output to the effectors?
What is a collection of neuronal cell bodies in the CNS called?
Where is the cerebellum located? What is function of the cerebellum?
At the back and bottom of the brain
For motor control
What are nerves running along the length of the CNS (spinal cord) called?
How do nerves emerge from the CNS?
Around 30 pairs of nerves emerge from the the CNS, 1 on each side of the spinal cord
What is a ganglion?
A collection of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS
What is the cerebral cortex?
The layer of grey matter forming the superficial layer of the brain
What is the structure of the brain with regards to grey and white matter?
Grey matter in the middle of each hemisphere of the brain
White matter on the outside of that
A further thin layer of grey matter outside of that
What does grey matter consist of?
Neuronal cell bodies
What does white matter consist of?
Nerve fibre axons
What is the purpose of white and grey matter? Where does the majority of information processing happen?
To send information along the CNS
Majority in the grey matter
What is the structure of the spinal cord with reference to grey and white matter?
Grey forms a 'butterfly' structure in the centre of the spinal cord around a central canal
White matter on the outside of this
What are the two aspects of the spinal cord?
Dorsal and ventral aspects
Which root of the spinal cord do sensory neurones run in?
The dorsal root
Where are cell bodies of sensory neurones found?
Dorsal root ganglion
What do the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord combine to form? Which neurones run here?
A spinal nerve
Both sensory and motor neurones
What neurones run in the ventral root?
What type of neurones are sensory neurones? What is the advantage of this?
Faster transmission of impulses, cell body doesn't get in the way
What type of neurone is a motor neurone?
Multi polar neurone
Which neurones run between sensory and motor neurones in the grey matter of the spinal cord?
What are the extensions of the cytoplasm of the cell body of a motor neurone called?
What is the structure of a spinal fibre?
Consists of many nerve fibres in bundles called fascicles
Around each fascicle of nerve fibres there is...
Around each individual nerve fibre there is...
Around the whole spinal fibre there is...
Epineurium, perineurium and endoneurium are examples of which type of tissue?
The cells of the nervous system can be grouped into which two categories?
What are 4 examples of glial cells?
What role do microglia play in the nervous system?
They survey the CNS for pathogens and effectively become macrophages when activated
What role do Schwann cells play in the nervous system?
They myelinate axons in the PNS
How many axons can one Schwann cell myelinate?
What are the roles of non-myelinating Schwann cells?
They surround many axons for support
Axons become invaginated into Schwann cell structure but not insulated
What are oligodendrocytes?
Found in the CNS
Myelinate multiple axons
What role do astrocytes play in the nervous system?
Act as cellular vacuums
e.g can act at synapses with its long processes to vacuum excess transmitter