The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Body Logistics > The Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Nervous System Deck (40):
1

What does the CNS consist of?

Spinal cord and brain

2

What does the PNS consist of?

Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system

3

What can the autonomic nervous system be split into?

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

4

What sort of actions is the somatic nervous system involved in?

Conscious/voluntary actions

5

What sort of actions is the autonomic nervous system involved in?

Involuntary actions

6

Which part of the nervous system conveys sensory information to the CNS and motor output to the effectors?

The PNS

7

What is a collection of neuronal cell bodies in the CNS called?

Nucleus

8

Where is the cerebellum located? What is function of the cerebellum?

At the back and bottom of the brain

For motor control

9

What are nerves running along the length of the CNS (spinal cord) called?

Tracts

10

How do nerves emerge from the CNS?

Around 30 pairs of nerves emerge from the the CNS, 1 on each side of the spinal cord

11

What is a ganglion?

A collection of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS

12

What is the cerebral cortex?

The layer of grey matter forming the superficial layer of the brain

13

What is the structure of the brain with regards to grey and white matter?

Grey matter in the middle of each hemisphere of the brain
White matter on the outside of that
A further thin layer of grey matter outside of that

14

What does grey matter consist of?

Neuronal cell bodies

15

What does white matter consist of?

Nerve fibre axons

16

What is the purpose of white and grey matter? Where does the majority of information processing happen?

To send information along the CNS

Majority in the grey matter

17

What is the structure of the spinal cord with reference to grey and white matter?

Grey forms a 'butterfly' structure in the centre of the spinal cord around a central canal
White matter on the outside of this

18

What are the two aspects of the spinal cord?

Dorsal and ventral aspects

19

Which root of the spinal cord do sensory neurones run in?

The dorsal root

20

Where are cell bodies of sensory neurones found?

Dorsal root ganglion

21

What do the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord combine to form? Which neurones run here?

A spinal nerve

Both sensory and motor neurones

22

What neurones run in the ventral root?

Motor neurones

23

What type of neurones are sensory neurones? What is the advantage of this?

Pseudounipolar cells

Faster transmission of impulses, cell body doesn't get in the way

24

What type of neurone is a motor neurone?

Multi polar neurone

25

Which neurones run between sensory and motor neurones in the grey matter of the spinal cord?

Inter-neurones.

26

What are the extensions of the cytoplasm of the cell body of a motor neurone called?

Dendrites

27

What is the structure of a spinal fibre?

Consists of many nerve fibres in bundles called fascicles

28

Around each fascicle of nerve fibres there is...

Perineurium

29

Around each individual nerve fibre there is...

Endoneurium

30

Around the whole spinal fibre there is...

Epineurium

31

Epineurium, perineurium and endoneurium are examples of which type of tissue?

Loose CT

32

The cells of the nervous system can be grouped into which two categories?

Neurones
Glial cells

33

What are 4 examples of glial cells?

Astrocytes
Microglia
Schwann Cells
Oligodendrocytes

34

What role do microglia play in the nervous system?

They survey the CNS for pathogens and effectively become macrophages when activated

35

What role do Schwann cells play in the nervous system?

They myelinate axons in the PNS

36

How many axons can one Schwann cell myelinate?

1 axon

37

What are the roles of non-myelinating Schwann cells?

They surround many axons for support
Axons become invaginated into Schwann cell structure but not insulated

38

What are oligodendrocytes?

Found in the CNS
Myelinate multiple axons

39

What role do astrocytes play in the nervous system?

Act as cellular vacuums
e.g can act at synapses with its long processes to vacuum excess transmitter

40

How is the blood brain barrier formed?

By interaction of astrocytes with endothelial cells to form tight junctions