Flashcards in Integrating Cells Into Tissues Deck (35):
At what temperature are packed red blood cells usually stored at? How long can they be kept at this temperature for?
6 degrees Celsius.
What is the lateral domain?
Refers to the side-to-side attachment of cells to each other.
What are the 3 types of cell junctions? Where are cell junctions found?
Tight junctions, desmosomes and gap junctions.
Found between adjacent epithelial cells.
What is a tight junction? Give an example of where they are found.
Fused plasmalemma forming a seal between 2 cells (selective barrier).
Epithelium of the intestines.
What is a desmosome? Give an example of where they are found.
They further strengthen the connection between adjacent cells, through interlocking proteins. Found under/next to tight junctions.
Found between epithelial cells that need to resist stress e.g. Skin
What is a gap junction?
Allow cells to communicate effectively together. Protein channels called connexons allow messages between cells.
What does the basal domain refer to?
Refers to cells sitting on a basement membrane
The basement membrane is the structural site for...
Overlying (epithelial) Cells and underlying connective tissue.
What are 2 ways in which cells can be attached to the basement membrane?
What are hemidesmosomes? Where are they found?
Attach cells to the basement membrane through integrins and intermediate keratin filaments.
Found in tissues subject to abrasion. Skin. Oral cavity.
What are focal adhesions?
Anchor cells to the basement membrane using integrins and intracellular actin filaments.
What is function of focal adhesions?
Help in cell movement. For example migration of epithelial cells in wound repair.
What are integrins?
Transmembrane glycoproteins used in the formation of hemidesmosomes and focal adhesions.
Give 2 functions of integrins.
Attachment of the cell to the ECM.
Signal transduction from the ECM to the cell.
Give 2 ways in which cells can be separated from tissues to produce a cell culture?
What are the disadvantages of using cultured cells? (3)
1) Cultured cells behave and look different to the same cells in tissues.
2) They demonstrate contact inhibition (stop growing once they touch each other)
3) Limited life span (senescence)
What two processes do cells die by?
Programmed cell death.
What is apoptosis controlled by? Give an example of a protein that inhibits apoptosis.
Bcl-2 protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane.
What are the basic steps of apoptosis once it has been initiated?
Catabolic processes begin (e.g enzymes digest cell components)
Cell shrinks and fragments into apoptotic bodies.
Phagocytised by adjoining cells.
What are the 3 types of cell renewal?
Give examples of cells that show static cell renewal.
Cardiac, CNS and skeletal muscle.
Give examples of cells that show stable cell renewal.
Fibroblasts, endothelium, smooth muscle.
Give examples of cells that show renewing cell renewal.
Blood, skin, gut epithelium.
Give 2 differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotes have no nucleus or mitochondria.
What is the relationship between a mitochondrion and the eukaryotic cell believed to be an example of?
How is mitochondrial DNA inherited?
What are the 4 basic types of tissue?
What sorts of places is epithelial tissue found?
Covering the exterior body surface.
Lining internal cavities.
Forms the secretory portion of glands (ducts).
What is an epitheloid? Give an example.
Epithelial cells that do not have a free surface.
Islets of Langerhans.
Do most epithelial cells have a free surface and exhibit polarity?
What are 3 examples of structures found at the apical domain of epithelial tissue?
What are microvilli? Where are they found?
Cytoplasmic processes extending from the cell surface.
What are stereovilli? What 2 places are they found?
Testes and sensory hair cells in the ear.