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Body Logistics > The Liver > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Liver Deck (31):
1

What is the position of the liver in the body?

On the right side of the body, pushing up on the diaphragm

2

What is the surface structure of the liver?

Larger right lobe and smaller left lobe - separated by ligament

3

What vessels are attached to the hepatic portal vein?

All the veins of the GI tract drain into the hepatic portal vein

Superior mesenteric vein - small intestine + half of colon
Inferior mesenteric vein - rest of colon
Splenic vein - spleen, pancreas and stomach

4

How much bile is produced in the liver each day?

1l

5

What is the function of the gallbladder?

Storage and concentration of bile

6

How is bile release controlled?

By hormones (e.g. CCK) - released on contraction

7

What is the function of the hepatic artery?

Supplies oxygenated blood to the liver

8

What is a portal system?

Two capillary systems in series

9

What are 2 examples of portal systems that exist in the body?

Hepatic portal system
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system

10

What vessel is found between the two capillary beds in the hepatic portal system?

Hepatic portal vein

11

What does the first capillary bed of the hepatic portal system supply? What is absorbed in to the blood here?

Blood to the intestines and stomach, where nutrients/toxins absorbed into blood

12

What does the second capillary bed of the hepatic portal system supply?

The liver

Nutrients and toxins absorbed in the first capillary bed, taken up by hepatocytes

13

What does the hepatic portal vein contain?

Water/electrolytes
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Hormones
Toxins

14

What is an example of a toxin found in the hepatic portal vein?

Ammonia

15

What does the liver do to ammonia?

Convert it to urea that is excreted in the urine

16

What does the hepatic portal vein NOT contain?

Lipids
Fat soluble vitamins

17

How are lipids digested?

Digested by lipases and taken up by lymphatics

18

What are some functions of the liver?

Storage - e.g. Iron and glycogen
Production - of albumin, glycogen, haemotopoiesis in foetus
Breakdown - of drugs, hormones, Hb, RBCs
Filtering - by Kupffer cells (macrophages)
Exocrine function - bile secretion
Endocrine function - produces angiotensin, thrombopoietin

19

What are the main cells found in the liver?

Hepatocytes

20

What type of cell renewal do hepatocytes show?

Very quick cell regeneration

21

Blood is supplied to the liver by which two vessels?

Hepatic artery (25%) - from aorta

Hepatic portal vein (75%) - from gut

22

What takes deoxygenated blood out of the liver?

The hepatic vein ----> inferior vena cava

23

What repeating structures does the liver consist of?

Liver lobules

24

How do the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery supply blood to the liver?

Through passages called sinusoids towards a central canal

25

By which cells of the liver is bile produced?

Hepatocytes

26

Where does bile travel once it is produced by hepatocytes?

In the opposite direction to bile ducts through bile canaliculi

27

What makes up a portal triad? Where is a portal triad positioned?

Hepatic portal vein
Hepatic artery
Bile duct

Around a lover lobule - surrounding a central vein

28

What is the space of disse?

Exits between endothelium and hepatocytes - microvilli of hepatocytes extends into this space for increase SA

29

What are Kupffer cells? Where are they found?

Macrophages found in the lining of sinusoids

30

What are stellate cells?

Full of cytoplasmic vitamin A

31

What happens to stellate cells in liver cirrhosis?

Turn into myofibroblasts --> liver fibrosis ---> portal hypertension