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Flashcards in cerebellum 2 Deck (23):

What is the general functional role of the flocculo-nodular lobe?

1. It is involved in vestibular control and vestibular reflexes.
2. Thus, it has a role in axial control and balance, eye movement, the vestibuloocular reflex, vestibule-colic reflex and the vestibule-spinal reflex.


general functional role of the vermal and paravermal regions?

The vermal region is involved in axial control, posture, locomotion and gaze reflexes.

The paravermal zone modulates stretch and withdrawal reflexes.


What is the general functional role of the neocerebellum (the large lateral hemispheres)?

The lateral hemisphere regions modulates the brain cortices involved in movement.


types of deficits from cerebellar damage

1. always ipsilateral
2. cause loss of coordination and equilibrium
3. NOT loss of sensation or muscle strength
4. HANDS Tremor


HANDS Tremor

H = hypotonia
A = ataxia, asynergia
N = nystagmus
D = dysarthria (slurred speech)
S = stance and gait


lesions of midline vermis impair

coordination of stance and gait, axial trunk posture and equilibrium


Lesions of lateral hemispheres impair the

ipsilateral limb.


cerebellar deep nuclei on each side:

1. Dentate nucleus
2. Globose and emboliform which together make the interposed nucleus
3. Fastigial Nuclei


The Dentate nucleus

1. has connections from the lateral hemispheric zone.
2. It is involved in planning, initiation and coordination of voluntary movements.


The Interposed nucleus is

1. connected to the paravermal zone
2. fine tunes movements of the limbs.


The fastigial nucleus has

1. has connections form the vermal zone and is
2. involved in control of axial musculature, posture, balance and integration of head and eye movements.


cerebellar cortex layers

1. molecular
2. purkinje
3. granular


molecular layer

1. Lots of parallel fibers (processes of granule cells)
2. Dendrites of Purkinje cells
3. Stellate and basket cells – inhibitory interneurons


purkinje cell layer

contains cell bodies of purkinje cells


granular layer

many granule cells, that extend processes superficially to become parallel fibers


There are 2 types of fibers that are the major input tracts to the cerebellum:

1. climbing fibers
2. mossy fibers.


Climbing fibers arise from

the contralateral inferior olivary nucleus, ascend in the inferior peduncle.


climbing fibers innervate

innervate all 3 functional zones of the cerebellum (vestibulo-, spino- and cortico-).


mossy fibers arise from

many sources, depending on which zone they are innervating


There are 5 cell types intrinsic to the cerebellar cortex:

1. golgi cells
2. granule cells
3. basket cells
4. stellate cells
5. purkinje cells


Which cells of the cerebellar cortex have inhibitory actions?

1. Purkinje cell outputs on deep cerebellar nuclei are inhibitory, i.e. activity in Purkinje cells turns off the nuclei.

2. Basket and stellate cells are inhibitory interneurons

3. golgi cells are excited by parallel fibers. They inhibit granule cells


The contralateral inferior olivary nucleus sends information via

climbing fibers, which travel in the inferior cerebellar peduncle to all of the functional zones of the cortex.


Each climbing fiber makes many contacts with a Purkinje cell, so that

each time there is an action potential in the climbing fiber, there will be a lot of depolarization of the Purkinje cell. This functions as an error signal.