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Flashcards in movement disorders Deck (19):
1

Two types of movement disorders:

1. Hyperkinesias: Moving too much
2. Hypokinesias: Moving too little

2

tremor is a

rhythmic oscillatory movement produced by alternating or synchronous contraction of antagonist muscles.

3

important things to note about tremors in patients

1. Position when it happens the most? Resting, action (intentional), postural?
2. Frequency? Slow or fast PD tremor 6 Hz
3. Regular or jerky?

4

Atheotosis –

slow, distal twisting movement

5

myoclonus

sudden, brief, shock-like movement

6

ataxia

poorly coordinated, clumsy movement

7

essential tremor nature of movement

1. Intention tremor: tremor with posture and action

2. Affects UE > LE & head

3. Insidious onset, progresses with age

8

essential tremor can cause

degeneration

9

causes of essential tremor

1. familial and idiopathic
2. unknown pathogenesis
a. oscillator in thalamus
b. some role of cerebellum

10

ET first line treatment

1. Primidone – anti-epileptic
2. Propranolol
3. Topamax – anti-epileptic
4. thalamic deep brain stim

11

Postural Tremor: nature of movement

Emergent postural tremor: tremor kicks in after 30sec or more

12

Postural Tremor: associated with

PD

13

Cause of Postural Tremor

Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the direct and indirect pathways

14

Treatment of Postural Tremor

1. Sinemet (L-DOPA + Carbidopa)
2. Dopamine receptor agonists
3. Amantidine
4. Anticholinergic Drugs
5. MAO/COMT Inhibitors
6. Deep brain stim

15

Chin Tremor: Nature of Movement

invariable facial expression

16

Chin Tremor is associated with

PD

17

Cause of Chin Tremor

Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the direct and indirect pathways

18

treatment of Chin Tremor

1. Sinemet (L-DOPA + Carbidopa)
2. Dopamine receptor agonists
3. Amantidine
4. Anticholinergic Drugs
5. MAO/COMT Inhibitors
6. Deep brain stim

19

List Hyperkinesias

1. ET
2. PT
3. CT
4. "flapping tremor" asterixis
5. tics
6. chorea
7. dystonia
8. tourettes