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Flashcards in hypothal Deck (27)
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1
Q
Anterior hypothalamus
A
above the optic chiasm
(supraoptic)
2
Q
medial hypothalamus
A
above the pituitary
(tuberal)
3
Q
posterior hypothalamus
A
above and including the mammillary bodies
4
Q
Anterior HT region nuclei
A
1. Lateral preoptic nucleus
2. Medial preoptic nucleus
3. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
5
Q
Tuberal Hypothalamic Nuclei (posterior)
A
1. Dorsal nucleus
2. Dorsmedial nucleus
3. Lateral nucleus
4. Supraoptic nucleus
5. Ventromedial nucleus
6. Periventricular nucleus
6
Q
Tuberal HT nuclei (ant)
A
1. Paraventricular nucleus
2. Anterior nucleus
3. Lateral nucleus
4. Periventricular nucleus
7
Q
Posterior Hypothalamic Nuclei
A
1. Posterior nucleus
2. Subthalamic nucleus
3. Lateral nucleus
4. Mammillary body
8
Q
Autonomic System:
A
ability of HT to regulate ANS is critical for its role in maintaining homeostasis and inducing emotional expression.
9
Q
Efferent/afferent pathways from the hypothalamus to the ANS travel in the following tracts:
A
1. Dorsal longitudinal fasiculus:
2. Medial forebrain bundle:
3. Mammillotegmental tract
10
Q
Dorsal longitudinal fasiculus:
A
to ANS nuclei in the brainstem reticular system
11
Q
Medial forebrain bundle:
A
to brainstem reticular formation
12
Q
Mammillotegmental tract:
A
from mammillary bodies to midbrain reticular formation (tegmentum)
13
Q
In general, stimulation of the anterior hypothalamus results in:
A
increases PNS activity (or SNS actions) stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus increases SNS activity.
14
Q
Somatic Motor System:
A
1. ability of HT to coordinate somatic motor activity leads to the organization of complex activities requiring both somatic and autonomic responses (vomiting, laughing, crying, facial expression
2. organizes motor activities required for homeostasis (chewing and swallowing).
15
Q
HT neurons innervate neurons in:

A
the reticular formation of the brainstem near the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves. These somatic neurons in turn innervate skeletal muscle.

Use same pathways as those used for the ANS
16
Q
Endocrine system:
A
HT regulates hormone release from both anterior & posterior lobes of the pituitary.
17
Q
Posterior pituitary:
A
1. HT regulates production of vasopressin and oxytocin by the hypothalamic supraoptic nuclei (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN)
2. These hormones are then transported down axons to the posterior pituitary and released into general circulation
18
Q
Anterior pituitary:
A
HT synthesizes and releases hormones into hypothalamo-pituitary portal circulation that regulate release of hormones from the anterior pituitary.
19
Q
Ant pituitary portal system
A
carries these hormones directly to the endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary w/o being diluted by general circulation
20
Q
HT hormones
A
regulate the release of anterior pituitary hormones
21
Q
Anterior pituitary hormones
A
regulate the release of hormones from most peripheral endocrine organs
22
Q
HT ____ most of endocrine system
A
indirectly regulates
23
Q
Limbic system:
A
Appropriate initiation of motivated behaviors and integration of emotional expression with sensory and environmental cues requires connections between the hypothalamus and the limbic system.
24
Q
structures of limbic system
A
1. fornix
2. stria terminalis
3. medial forebrain bundle
25
Q
Fornix:
A
afferent/efferent connections between the hippocampus and mammillary bodies.
26
Q
stria terminalis
A
afferent/efferent connections between the amygdala and the anterior/tuberal regions of the hypothalamus
27
Q
medial forebrain bundle
A
afferent/efferent connections between the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex and septum