Function of Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Flashcards Preview

Neuro exam 3 > Function of Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Function of Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q
Cerebellum predicts
A
neural signals that produce and adjust reflexes and motor commands.
2
Q
BG predicts inputs that produce
A
positive biological value (often nutrients) or inputs that satisfy biological needs
3
Q
Feedback controller
A
simple system in which the environment must first change and then the controller can elicit a change to compensate.

Slow and often will overcompensate when you attempt to speed it up.
4
Q
Feedback controller example
A
1. A thermostat that can turn on a heater or a cooler to keep the room at a steady temperature.
2. If there is a decrease in temperature, it turns on the heater.
3. However, the time and sense delay cause it to overshoot and need to turn on the cooler.
4. This cycle continues
5
Q
Feedforward controller
A
using sensory data to calculate a state that is coming at some future time, the predicted state.

Senses variables that allow it to make contingency plans
6
Q
Feedforward controller example
A
1. A thermostat that can turn on a heater or a cooler to keep the room at a steady temperature.
2. This smart controller can sense variables like the window opening, how much it opens, the outside temp, and PREDICT the change in room temp.
3. The system activates the heater pre-emptively to counteract the temp drop and maintain a stable target value with minimal energy waste.
7
Q
Difference between Feedback and Feedforward control
A
1. Feedback purely REACTS to a change, it has no thought process of predicting what might happen

2. Feedforward controller actually makes contingency plans and plans ahead!
8
Q
Parietal cortex function
A
matches joint position sense with visual coordinates for reaching motion
9
Q
how does parietal cortex work?
A
1. stream of info for 'where' advances dorsally from occipital cortex into parietal lobe
2. parietal association cortex
3. Then, it integrates info about the target (limb position) and somatosensory info about limb position.
4. Integrated info is fed to motor cortices in frontal lobe to guide movement of limb to target.
10
Q
parietal association cortex is located
A
specifically around the intraparietal sulcus. This area can calculate the difference between the target location and joint angles necessary.
11
Q
Broadmann’s area 6:
A
Calculates the difference between the current location and the desired location so that a command can be issued for the proper joint angles changes to get to that desired location.

These are issued to PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX
12
Q
parietal association cortices conveys information to
A
premotor cortices. Broadmann 6
13
Q
cerebellum error signal
A
ION neurons
14
Q
cerebellum return projection
A
1. comes to ION neurons directly from deep cerebellar nuclei or indirectly through red nucleus.
2. Carries a prediction signal so the ION neurons can compute error between prediction and inputs that actually occur
15
Q
cerebellum: what conveys the prediction
A
GABAergic inhibitory neurons through deep cerebellar nuclei to IO
16
Q
cerebellum: critic of the
A
parallel-purkinje network
17
Q
basal ganglia error signal
A
dopaminergic neurons
18
Q
basal ganglia: return projection
A
comes to DA neurons from small groups of striatal medium spiny neurons in striosomes.

Carries a prediction signal so the DA neurons can compute the error between the prediction and inputs that actually occur.
19
Q
BG: what conveys the prediction?
A
GABAergic inhibitory neurons through the striosome to SNc.
20
Q
BG: critic of the
A
cortico-striatal network