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Flashcards in cortical lesions Deck (28)
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1
Q
Frontal lobe in human cognition
A
Voluntary movement, language fluency (L side), motor prosody (R side), comportment, executive function, and motivation.
2
Q
Parietal lobe in human cognition
A
tactile sensation, visuospatial function (R), Attention (R), Reading (L), Writing (L), Calculation (L).
3
Q
Temporal lobe in human cognition
A
language comprehension (L), sensory prosody (R), Memory, emotion.
4
Q
Occipital lobe in human cognition
A
vision, visual perception, visual recognition.
5
Q
The 3 major frontal lobe syndromes
A
1. disinhibition
2. executive dysfunction
3. apathy
6
Q
Disinhibition lesion locations
A
orbitofrontal lesions
7
Q
disinhibition is a disorder of
A
comportment when a person can no longer adequately integrate limbic drives into appropriate behavioral repertoire.
8
Q
disinhibition signs
A
1. Irritability
2. loss of empathy
3. impulsivity
4. hypersexuality
5. hyperphagia
6. violence.
9
Q
Executive dysfunction location of lesions
A
dorsolateral prefrontal lesions
10
Q
Executive dysfunction signs
A
1. no longer have capacity to plan, carry out and monitor sequential goal directed action
2. lack preservation
3. altering actions in response to changing environmental stimuli
11
Q
apathy lesion located
A
medial frontal lesion
12
Q
apathy signs
A
1. lack of motivation
2. most severe forms are abulia and akinetic mutism
13
Q
Major Cognitive disorders related to temporal lobe lesions
A
1. wernicke's aphasia
2. sensory aprosody
3. amnesia and memory
4. emotion
14
Q
Wernicke’s Aphasia:
A
auditory comprehension is impaired because of a lesion n post. region of L superior temporal gyrus

(Wernicke’s area, Brodmann area 22).
15
Q
Sensory aprosody:
A
diminished ability to comprehend emotional inflection of speech due to lesion in R hemisphere analogue of Wernicke’s area.
16
Q
Amnesia and memory
A
hippocampus is essential for new learning. Only remove 1 hippocampus not both during surgery.
17
Q
Emotion disorder from temporal lobe lesion
A
basic emotions of flight/fight, feeding, and sexuality as mediated by limbic system from connections between temporal lobe and diencephalon.
18
Q
Temporal lobe epilepsy:
A
temporolimbic lesion of temporocortical region affecting emotion.
Commonly caused by epilepsy lesions in the brain causing lasting personality changes and a deepened emotionality.
19
Q
Hemineglect
A
failure to report, respond to, or orient to sensory stimuli that can not be explained by primary sensory dysfunction.

Inattention to one side of the body or extrapersonal space.
20
Q
hemineglect is common after
A
lesion to R hemisphere (dominant for attention).
21
Q
L hemineglect:
A
disabling disorder of cognition.
22
Q
Occipitoparietal
A
dorsal stream, tells “where” in visual system
23
Q
Occipitotemporal
A
ventral stream, tells “what” something is in the visual stream.
24
Q
Visual field deficits
A
absence of vision!!!

So actually UNABLE to physically see something.
25
Q
Visual agnosia:
A
visual image is seen normally, but your brain can’t recognize it (recognition deficit).

1. object agnosia
2. face agnosia
3. simultagnosia
26
Q
Object agnosia:
A
from L occipitotemporal lesions – can’t understand what something is.
27
Q
Face agnosia:
A
(prosopagnosia) from R occipitotemporal lesions., no idea who people are.
28
Q
Simultagnosia:
A
from bilateral occipitotparietal lesions, can’t recognize the entirety of a visual array, so have no idea where things are or how to process a location.