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Flashcards in Movement disorders CPC Deck (21)
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1
Q

List major classes of degenerative disorders

A
  1. dementing diseases
  2. movement disorders
  3. motor neuron disease
2
Q

list dementing diseases

A
  1. Alzheimer’s Disease
  2. Lewy Body Disease Spectrum (LBD)
  3. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)
3
Q

List movement disorders

A
  1. Parkinson’s disease
  2. Multiple systems atrophy (MSA)
  3. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)
  4. Huntington’s disease
  5. Spinocerebellar ataxias
4
Q

List motor neurons diseases

A
  1. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)
  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  3. Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS)
5
Q

dementing disease signs

A
  1. Impaired language
  2. Impaired long term memory
  3. Impaired planning, behavior, judgment, executive control
  4. Impaired short term memory
6
Q

Movement disorder categories

A
  1. basal ganglia disorder

2. cerebellar disorders (HANDS Tremor)

7
Q

Basal ganglia disorder signs

A
  1. Tremor (usually resting)
  2. Hypokinesis
  3. Hyperkinesis
8
Q

Hypokinesis:

A

bradykinesis and rigidity

9
Q

Hyperkinesis:

A
  1. chorea
  2. athetosis (involuntary writhing movements)
  3. akathisia (restlessness)
10
Q

Cerebellar disorders (HANDS Tremor) signs

A
  1. Hypotonia
  2. Ataxia/Asynergia
  3. Nystagmus
  4. Dysarthria
  5. Stance and gait disequilibrium
  6. Tremor (usually intention)
11
Q

Overlap of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

A

tauopathy that manifests as a movement disorder

12
Q

Overlap of AD

A

tauopathy that manifests as dementing diseases

13
Q

List synucleinopathies

A
  1. parkinson’s disease

2. Multiple system atrophy

14
Q

Parkinson’s disease histology hallmarks

A
  1. Lewy bodies
  2. Lewy neuritis (proteinacious structures around neurons)
  3. Substantia nigra degeneration (with few neurons and gliosis)
15
Q

Multiple system atrophy

histology hallmarks

A
  1. Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (inclusions are synuclein protein)
  2. Gliosis and glial scars
  3. Neuronal inclusions
  4. Diffuse involvement/degeneration of brainstem, putamen, white matter, and cerebellum
16
Q

various disease processes affecting specific neuroanatomic site manifest ______

A

similar symptoms.

17
Q

damage to the substantia nigra can cause

A
  1. parkinson’s disease
  2. multiple system atrophy
  3. progressive supranuclear palsy
  4. corticobasal degneration

All present with parkinsonian-like symptoms

18
Q

What is the role the frontal lobes in human cognition?

A
  1. Voluntary movement
  2. Language production (left)
  3. Motor prosody - inflection of speech, homologous area on right side
  4. Comportment
  5. Executive Function/ understand emotions of others
19
Q

What is the role the temporal lobe in human cognition?

A
  1. Audition
  2. Language comprehension
  3. Sensory prosody - understanding inflection, located on right side
  4. Memory
    - -Hippocampus - remember H.M. removal of bilateral hippocampi for intractable epilepsy
  5. Emotion
    - -Limbic system and Papaz circuit
20
Q

What is the role the parietal lobes in human cognition?

A
  1. Tactile sensation
  2. Visuospatial function
  3. Attention ( R )
  4. Reading (L)
  5. Writing (L)
  6. Calculation (L)
21
Q

What is the role the occipital lobes in human cognition?

A
  1. Vision
  2. Visual Perception
  3. Visual Recognition