Flashcards in Ch. 11 Homework Deck (30):
The bones of the skeleton have five major functions. Some bones protect soft body parts. For example, the sternum, thoracic vertebrae, and ______ protect the heart and lungs.
Bone is also involved with storage of minerals and fat. Bone cells called ______ break down bone and return calcium and phosphate ions to the bloodstream.
The red bone marrow found in the flat bones of the skull, ribs, and pelvis are involved in the ______.
Production of blood cells
The ______ of the skeletal system, along with muscles, permit flexible body movement.
The ______ bones support the abdominal cavity.
Cartilage is a type of ______ tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone. It is made of cells called ______.
______ cartilage is firm and somewhat flexible. It is found at the ends of long bones, in the nose, at the ends of ribs, and in the larynx and trachea.
______ cartilage is found in the ear flaps and epiglottis. It contains mainly ______ fibers.
Fibrocartilage is stronger than hyaline cartilage because the matrix contains wide rows of thick ______ fibers. Fibrocartilage is found where durable support is needed, such as between the ______ and in the cartilage of the knee.
Collagen, disks of the vertebrae
Bones join together at areas called ______.
Joints that are immovable, such as ______, are called ______.
Those between bones of the skull, fibrous joints
Joints that are slightly movable and connected by cartilage are called ______.
Joints that move freely because of a fluid-filled cavity, such as ______, are called ______.
Knees and hips, Synovial joints
Bones are joined at various types of joints. Fibrous joints, such as the sutures between the ______ bones, tend to be immobile.
Cartilaginous joints allow for minimal movement. These types of joints are joined by specialized connective tissue, either ______ or fibrocartilage.
Synovial joints move freely. Tendons and ______ help to stabilize these joints, and crescent-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage called ______ often act as shock absorbers.
Joints between the ribs and the sternum are examples of ______ joints.
The knee is an example of a ______ joint, in which two bones are separated by a cavity.
Hyaline cartilage is laid down by ______ in the shape of future bones.
A bone collar is formed by newly derived ______.
Blood vessels bring osteoblasts into the cartilage. At a ______ ossification center, osteoblasts form ______.
Primary, spongy bone
As the bone collar thickens, the ______ forms, and secondary ossification centers appear in the ______.
Medullary cavity, epiphysis
Cartilage remains at the ______, allowing for increasing bone length throughout childhood.
Bone remodeling keeps bones strong as ______ break down bone and ______ rebuild it.
This process replaces as much as ______ of bone each year.
Bone recycling helps the body to ______ blood calcium.
Six to eight hours after a break or fracture, blood forms a ______ in the space caused by the injury.
Tissue repair starts and a fibrocartilaginous ______ fills the space.
Osteoblasts form ______, bony callus is formed, and the broken bones are joined together.