Ch 18 Homework Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 18 Homework Deck (24):
1

A karyotype is essentially a picture of the chromosomes found within the nucleus of a cell. These are displayed as numbered ______, arranged by ______.

Pairs, size

2

A normal karyotype shows 23 sets of chromosomes, 22 of which are ______, and one set are ______.

Autosomes, sex chromosomes

3

A karyotype can be examined to determine chromosomal ______ such as extra or missing chromosomes.

Abnormality

4

To obtain this picture, a chemical is used to stop cell ______ such that the chromosomes are condensed and visible with a microscope.

Division

5

Duplicated chromosomes called ______ chromatids contain the same genes.

Sister

6

The chromatids remain together until a phase within mitosis, where the ______ splits.

Centromere

7

They are held together by a region called the ______.

Centromere

8

At this point, the chromatids separate and two individual ______ chromosomes are fully formed.

Daughter

9

When a cell needs to divide for growth or ______ it goes through a process called mitosis.

Repair

10

To prepare for the stages of mitosis and to replicate the DNA, the cell goes through a stage called ______.

Interphase

11

Once in prophase, the ______ chromosomes are visible.

Duplicated

12

During metaphase, the chromosomes ______ down the equator of the cell.

Align

13

In ______, the sister chromatids separate.

Anaphase

14

Telephase completed the division into ______ identical cells.

Two

15

When homologous chromosomes fail to ______ correctly during meiosis, nondisjunction occurs.

Separate

16

Nondisjunction can produce abnormal egg and sperm cells with extra or ______ chromosomes.

Too few

17

If a normal sperm combines with an egg cell that has an extra chromosome, ______ results and one chromosome is present in three copies.

Trisomy

18

If an egg is missing a chromosome and is fertilized by a normal sperm, ______ results and one chromosome is only present as a single copy.

Monosomy

19

Deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations are examples of chromosomal ______.

Mutations

20

Deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations cause various ______, or groups of symptoms that always occur together.

Syndromes

21

Deletions occur when part of a chromosome is ______.

Missing

22

Duplications occur when a chromosomal segment is present more than one on ______ chromosome.

The same

23

A translocation is movement of a chromosomal segment to a ______ chromosome.

Nonhomologous

24

Inversion results from a chromosome segment bring turned around ______ degrees.

180