Flashcards in Ch 18 Homework Deck (24):
A karyotype is essentially a picture of the chromosomes found within the nucleus of a cell. These are displayed as numbered ______, arranged by ______.
A normal karyotype shows 23 sets of chromosomes, 22 of which are ______, and one set are ______.
Autosomes, sex chromosomes
A karyotype can be examined to determine chromosomal ______ such as extra or missing chromosomes.
To obtain this picture, a chemical is used to stop cell ______ such that the chromosomes are condensed and visible with a microscope.
Duplicated chromosomes called ______ chromatids contain the same genes.
The chromatids remain together until a phase within mitosis, where the ______ splits.
They are held together by a region called the ______.
At this point, the chromatids separate and two individual ______ chromosomes are fully formed.
When a cell needs to divide for growth or ______ it goes through a process called mitosis.
To prepare for the stages of mitosis and to replicate the DNA, the cell goes through a stage called ______.
Once in prophase, the ______ chromosomes are visible.
During metaphase, the chromosomes ______ down the equator of the cell.
In ______, the sister chromatids separate.
Telephase completed the division into ______ identical cells.
When homologous chromosomes fail to ______ correctly during meiosis, nondisjunction occurs.
Nondisjunction can produce abnormal egg and sperm cells with extra or ______ chromosomes.
If a normal sperm combines with an egg cell that has an extra chromosome, ______ results and one chromosome is present in three copies.
If an egg is missing a chromosome and is fertilized by a normal sperm, ______ results and one chromosome is only present as a single copy.
Deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations are examples of chromosomal ______.
Deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations cause various ______, or groups of symptoms that always occur together.
Deletions occur when part of a chromosome is ______.
Duplications occur when a chromosomal segment is present more than one on ______ chromosome.
A translocation is movement of a chromosomal segment to a ______ chromosome.