Flashcards in Chapter 9 Homework Deck (45):
The primary function of the respiratory system is to allow _____ from the atmosphere to enter the body and ______ to exit the body.
Oxygen, Carbon dioxide
Breathing, or ventilation, includes ______ (breathing in) and ______ (breathing out); during these processes air is conducted toward or away from the lungs by a series of cavities, tubes, and openings.
In order to transport gases throughout the body, the respiratory system works with the ______ system.
The exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the air and the blood is called ______ respiration, and the exchange of gases between the blood and tissue fluid is called ______ respiration.
Gas exchange with the environment is necessary to the process of cellular respiration, which produces stored cellular energy in the form of ______ that is required for many cellular functions.
When we are relaxed, a ______ amount of air moves in and out with each breath. The amount of air, called the ______, is normally about 500 ml.
small, tidal volume
After a very deep exhalation, some air (about 1l) remains in the lungs; this is termed the ______. This air is not as useful for gas exchange because the oxygen content has been ______.
Residual volume, depleted
You can increase inspiration (breathing in) by not only expanding the chest but also by lowering the diaphragm. This type of forced inspiration usually increases the volume of inhaled air beyond the tidal volume, and that amount is called the ______.
Inspiratory reserve volume
The maximum volume of air that can be moved out during a single breath is the ______.
The expiratory reserve volume occurs when the amount of air you exhale by contracting the abdominal and ______ muscles is dramatically increased.
Ventilation rhythm is controlled by a respiratory control centr in the medulla oblongata, which automatically sends signals to the diaphragm and muscles of the ribcage that cause ______ to occur.
When these signals ______, the muscles relax and ______ occurs.
Though mostly ______ process, we can change our breathing patterns to accommodate activities like singing or eating, breathing in with what is called ______.
an automatic, forced inspiration
Two sets of ______ that are sensitive to pH can cause breathing to ______.
Chemoreceptors, speed up
One set is found centrally located in the ______ while another is set in the ______.
Brain stem, circulatory system
Carotid bodies in the carotid arteries, and aortic bodies in the aorta, are sensitive to blood pH as well. They are ______ affected by low oxygen levels.
They are ______ when carbon dioxide levels change blood pH.
When blood pH is ______, they respiratory center in the brain ______ the rate and depth of breathing.
Internal respiration refers to the exchange of gases between the blood in ______ capillaries and the tissue fluid.
Internal respiration services tissue cells, and without internal respiration, cells could not continue to produce the ______ that they need as an energy source.
Blood in the systemic capillaries is a ______ color because of the presence of oxyhemoglobin. Oxyhemoglobin gives up ______, which diffuses out of the blood into the tissues.
Bright red, oxygen
Oxyygen diffuses out of the blood into the tissues because the ______ of tissue fluid is lower than that of blood. This is because cells continuously use up ______ in cellular respiration.
Alveoli fills with pus and fluid making gas exchange difficult
Connective tissue builds up in lungs, reducing their elasticity
Tubercles encapsulate bacteria and elasticity of lungs is reduced
Aveoli burst and fuse into enlarged air spaces; surface area for gas exchange is reduced
Airways are inflamed due to irritation, and bronchioles constrict due to muscle spasms
Airways are inflamed due to infection or irritation; coughing brings up mucus and pus
Upper respiratory tract infections are ______ common than lower respiratory tract infections because of their ______ exposure to pathogens.
The common cold is an infection caused by a(n) ______ and is characterized by sneezing, rhinitis, and a mild fever.
Because there are ______ strains, an effective vaccine is ______.
Inflammation of the pharynx is also called ______ and is often caused by the ______ Steptococcus pyogenes.
Also known as ______, these infections can develop into scarlet fever or rheumatic fever if left untreated.
Infections that reach the bronchi in the lower respiratory tract can result in ______, or short term inflammation of the bronchi.
If the inciting cause is not removed, ______ can develop.
Both this disorder and emphysema are the leading causes of ______, marked by extreme difficulty breathing and susceptibility to infection.
Viral, fungal, or bacterial infections of the lungs result in ______, marked by fluid or pus build up in the bronchi and alveoli, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
The disease tuberculosis also affects the lungs and is caused by an infection of a bacterium called ______.
Tuberculosis ______ a major problem in the US; It ______ a major problem in developing countries.
Is no, is
Emphysema is a(n) ______ lung disorder that causes the ______ to become mishapen and damaged, preventing efficient gas exchange.
Smoking causes ______ of lung cancers, as well as other cancers to include those of the mouth and respiratory tract.
Smoking is a ______ cause of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer. Cigarettes contain chemicals that ______ the air passage and lungs; a smoker might have one or all of these disorders or diseases.
Emphysema is a chronic ______ disorder in which the ______ are damaged, leaving decreased available surface area for gas exchange.
Lung cancer, first evident by the thickening and callusing of the cells lining the ______, can progress to the point at which a lobe must be removed.