Chapter 9 Homework Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Homework Deck (45):
1

The primary function of the respiratory system is to allow _____ from the atmosphere to enter the body and ______ to exit the body.

Oxygen, Carbon dioxide

2

Breathing, or ventilation, includes ______ (breathing in) and ______ (breathing out); during these processes air is conducted toward or away from the lungs by a series of cavities, tubes, and openings.

inspiration, expiration

3

In order to transport gases throughout the body, the respiratory system works with the ______ system.

Cardiovascular

4

The exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the air and the blood is called ______ respiration, and the exchange of gases between the blood and tissue fluid is called ______ respiration.

external, internal

5

Gas exchange with the environment is necessary to the process of cellular respiration, which produces stored cellular energy in the form of ______ that is required for many cellular functions.

ATP

6

When we are relaxed, a ______ amount of air moves in and out with each breath. The amount of air, called the ______, is normally about 500 ml.

small, tidal volume

7

After a very deep exhalation, some air (about 1l) remains in the lungs; this is termed the ______. This air is not as useful for gas exchange because the oxygen content has been ______.

Residual volume, depleted

8

You can increase inspiration (breathing in) by not only expanding the chest but also by lowering the diaphragm. This type of forced inspiration usually increases the volume of inhaled air beyond the tidal volume, and that amount is called the ______.

Inspiratory reserve volume

9

The maximum volume of air that can be moved out during a single breath is the ______.

Vital capacity

10

The expiratory reserve volume occurs when the amount of air you exhale by contracting the abdominal and ______ muscles is dramatically increased.

Internal Intercostal

11

Ventilation rhythm is controlled by a respiratory control centr in the medulla oblongata, which automatically sends signals to the diaphragm and muscles of the ribcage that cause ______ to occur.

Inspiration

12

When these signals ______, the muscles relax and ______ occurs.

stop, expiration

13

Though mostly ______ process, we can change our breathing patterns to accommodate activities like singing or eating, breathing in with what is called ______.

an automatic, forced inspiration

14

Two sets of ______ that are sensitive to pH can cause breathing to ______.

Chemoreceptors, speed up

15

One set is found centrally located in the ______ while another is set in the ______.

Brain stem, circulatory system

16

Carotid bodies in the carotid arteries, and aortic bodies in the aorta, are sensitive to blood pH as well. They are ______ affected by low oxygen levels.

not strongly

17

They are ______ when carbon dioxide levels change blood pH.

stimulated

18

When blood pH is ______, they respiratory center in the brain ______ the rate and depth of breathing.

acidic, increases

19

Internal respiration refers to the exchange of gases between the blood in ______ capillaries and the tissue fluid.

Systemic

20

Internal respiration services tissue cells, and without internal respiration, cells could not continue to produce the ______ that they need as an energy source.

ATP

21

Blood in the systemic capillaries is a ______ color because of the presence of oxyhemoglobin. Oxyhemoglobin gives up ______, which diffuses out of the blood into the tissues.

Bright red, oxygen

22

Oxyygen diffuses out of the blood into the tissues because the ______ of tissue fluid is lower than that of blood. This is because cells continuously use up ______ in cellular respiration.

Po2, oxygen

23

Pneumonia

Alveoli fills with pus and fluid making gas exchange difficult

24

Pulmonary fibrosis

Connective tissue builds up in lungs, reducing their elasticity

25

Pulmonary tuberculosis

Tubercles encapsulate bacteria and elasticity of lungs is reduced

26

Emphysema

Aveoli burst and fuse into enlarged air spaces; surface area for gas exchange is reduced

27

Asthma

Airways are inflamed due to irritation, and bronchioles constrict due to muscle spasms

28

Bronchitis

Airways are inflamed due to infection or irritation; coughing brings up mucus and pus

29

Upper respiratory tract infections are ______ common than lower respiratory tract infections because of their ______ exposure to pathogens.

More, frequent

30

The common cold is an infection caused by a(n) ______ and is characterized by sneezing, rhinitis, and a mild fever.

Virus

31

Because there are ______ strains, an effective vaccine is ______.

Many, unlikely

32

Inflammation of the pharynx is also called ______ and is often caused by the ______ Steptococcus pyogenes.

Pharyngitis, bacterium

33

Also known as ______, these infections can develop into scarlet fever or rheumatic fever if left untreated.

strep throat

34

Infections that reach the bronchi in the lower respiratory tract can result in ______, or short term inflammation of the bronchi.

Acute brinchitis

35

If the inciting cause is not removed, ______ can develop.

Chronic bronchitis

36

Both this disorder and emphysema are the leading causes of ______, marked by extreme difficulty breathing and susceptibility to infection.

COPD

37

Viral, fungal, or bacterial infections of the lungs result in ______, marked by fluid or pus build up in the bronchi and alveoli, coughing, and difficulty breathing.

Pneumonia

38

The disease tuberculosis also affects the lungs and is caused by an infection of a bacterium called ______.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

39

Tuberculosis ______ a major problem in the US; It ______ a major problem in developing countries.

Is no, is

40

Emphysema is a(n) ______ lung disorder that causes the ______ to become mishapen and damaged, preventing efficient gas exchange.

Incurable, alveoli

41

Smoking causes ______ of lung cancers, as well as other cancers to include those of the mouth and respiratory tract.

90%

42

Smoking is a ______ cause of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer. Cigarettes contain chemicals that ______ the air passage and lungs; a smoker might have one or all of these disorders or diseases.

Leading, irritate

43

Emphysema is a chronic ______ disorder in which the ______ are damaged, leaving decreased available surface area for gas exchange.

Incurable, alveoli

44

Lung cancer, first evident by the thickening and callusing of the cells lining the ______, can progress to the point at which a lobe must be removed.

Bronchi

45

Progressed lung cancer, evident by ______, or spreading of the cancer to tissues beyond the lungs, requires chemotherapy and radiation. However, these treatments provide no guarantee and lung cancer often results in death.

Metastasis