Flashcards in Ch 6 Homework Deck (37)
Select all the functions of blood in the human body.
• Defends the body against pathogens
• Plays an important role in homeostasis by regulating body temperature
• Transports oxygen, nutrients, wastes, hormones
Put the components of blood in the appropriate portion of blood in which they are found.
• Red blood cells
• white blood cells
• organic molecules
Red blood cells are _____ for oxygen transport and contain a pigment called hemoglobin.
The pigment consists of four highly folded ______ chains with a group containing iron at the _____ of each chain.
The iron combines _____ with oxygen.
Hemoglobin thus accepts oxygen i the _____ and releases it in the _______.
Carbon monoxide also attaches to hemoglobin and then _____ easily let go.
Each hemoglobin can transport ___ molecules of oxygen.
What is involved with oxygen transport?
• Four molecules of the molecule in question are transported at a time by hemoglobin in the RBCs.
• Hemoglobin accepts the molecule it will carry in the lungs, and binds it reversibly
• A molecule binds to the iron in the heme portion of a hemoglobin molecule
• When the molecule in question binds hemoglobin in the lungs, the pigment molecule changes shape.
What is involved with carbon dioxide transport?
• 7% of the molecule is dissolved in the plasma; 25% is transported by hemoglobin; 68% is transported as bicarbonate ion in the plasma
• This process involves the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in forward and reverse reactions to create carbonic acid
Red blood cells (RBCs) are produced in the ____ from red blood stem cells that differentiate to form mature RBCs.
As the RBCs mature, they lose their nucleus and acquire _____
When insufficient oxygen is being delivered to the cells, the body has a way to ______ the number of RBCs.
The ____ release a hormone called erythropoietin, which stimulates the cells in bone marrow to produce _____ RBCs. This could be _____ for a person with anemia, a disease which decreases the number of RBCs in the body.
kidneys, more, helpful
This hormone has also been used illegally by athletes; though the process is dangerous, it serves to enhance athletic performance by improving _______ muscles.
O2 delivery to
What are the steps in the process of producing more RBCs when the body's O2 level is low?
• Low O2 level
• Kidneys increase the production of erythropoietin
• Stem cells in the bone marrow increase RBC production
• O2 blood level returns to normal
• Normal O2 blood level
White blood cells fight _____ in an individual with normally functioning bone marrow, the numbers of WBCs can _____ within hours, if needed.
White blood cells, an important part of the _____ system, help defend the body against pathogens, cancer cells, and _____ proteins.
White blood cells have many methods of defense, including phagocytosis, or _____ invaders, and producing antibodies.
Blood clotting ensures that the plasma and formed elements remain _____ blood vessels.
Thus, clotting helps the body maintain homeostasis in the ______ system.
When a blood vessel is damaged, blood loss can have side effects ranging from minor to severe. To prevent blood loss, several ______ and calcium ions participate in the formation of a blood clot.
A person who __________ blood clots runs the risk of excessive bleeding. A person who __________ runs the risk of clots traveling to the brain and causing a stroke. Thus, the proper balanced maintenance of this process is crucial.
cannot adequately form, forms too many
List the steps in the formation of a blood clot.
• An injury punctures a blood vessel in the body
• Platelets congregate to form a plug
• Prothrombin activator is released by platelets and damaged tissue
• A cascade of enzymatic activity results in which calcium ions convert prothrombin to thrombin
• Fibrin threads form and trap red blood cells
Blood type A
Type A antigen
Blood type B
Type B antigens
Type AB blood
Type A and B antigens
Type O blood
Anti-A and anti-B antibodies
Blood type depends upon the antigens as well as whether a person has or does not have Rh factor on the _______.
red blood cells