Ch 6 Homework Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Ch 6 Homework > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 6 Homework Deck (37):
1

Select all the functions of blood in the human body.

• Defends the body against pathogens
• Plays an important role in homeostasis by regulating body temperature
• Transports oxygen, nutrients, wastes, hormones

2

Put the components of blood in the appropriate portion of blood in which they are found.

Formed elements:
• Red blood cells
• white blood cells
• platelets
Plasma
• water
• salts
• organic molecules

3

Red blood cells are _____ for oxygen transport and contain a pigment called hemoglobin.

specialized

4

The pigment consists of four highly folded ______ chains with a group containing iron at the _____ of each chain.

Polypeptide, center

5

The iron combines _____ with oxygen.

Reversibly

6

Hemoglobin thus accepts oxygen i the _____ and releases it in the _______.

Lungs, tissues

7

Carbon monoxide also attaches to hemoglobin and then _____ easily let go.

will not

8

Each hemoglobin can transport ___ molecules of oxygen.

4

9

What is involved with oxygen transport?

• Four molecules of the molecule in question are transported at a time by hemoglobin in the RBCs.
• Hemoglobin accepts the molecule it will carry in the lungs, and binds it reversibly
• A molecule binds to the iron in the heme portion of a hemoglobin molecule
• When the molecule in question binds hemoglobin in the lungs, the pigment molecule changes shape.

10

What is involved with carbon dioxide transport?

• 7% of the molecule is dissolved in the plasma; 25% is transported by hemoglobin; 68% is transported as bicarbonate ion in the plasma
• This process involves the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in forward and reverse reactions to create carbonic acid

11

Red blood cells (RBCs) are produced in the ____ from red blood stem cells that differentiate to form mature RBCs.

Bone marrow

12

As the RBCs mature, they lose their nucleus and acquire _____

Hemoglobin

13

When insufficient oxygen is being delivered to the cells, the body has a way to ______ the number of RBCs.

Increase

14

The ____ release a hormone called erythropoietin, which stimulates the cells in bone marrow to produce _____ RBCs. This could be _____ for a person with anemia, a disease which decreases the number of RBCs in the body.

kidneys, more, helpful

15

This hormone has also been used illegally by athletes; though the process is dangerous, it serves to enhance athletic performance by improving _______ muscles.

O2 delivery to

16

What are the steps in the process of producing more RBCs when the body's O2 level is low?

• Low O2 level
• Kidneys increase the production of erythropoietin
• Stem cells in the bone marrow increase RBC production
• O2 blood level returns to normal
• Normal O2 blood level

17

White blood cells fight _____ in an individual with normally functioning bone marrow, the numbers of WBCs can _____ within hours, if needed.

infection, double

18

White blood cells, an important part of the _____ system, help defend the body against pathogens, cancer cells, and _____ proteins.

immune, foreign

19

White blood cells have many methods of defense, including phagocytosis, or _____ invaders, and producing antibodies.

Engulfing

20

Blood clotting ensures that the plasma and formed elements remain _____ blood vessels.

within

21

Thus, clotting helps the body maintain homeostasis in the ______ system.

Cardiovascular

22

When a blood vessel is damaged, blood loss can have side effects ranging from minor to severe. To prevent blood loss, several ______ and calcium ions participate in the formation of a blood clot.

clotting factors

23

A person who __________ blood clots runs the risk of excessive bleeding. A person who __________ runs the risk of clots traveling to the brain and causing a stroke. Thus, the proper balanced maintenance of this process is crucial.

cannot adequately form, forms too many

24

List the steps in the formation of a blood clot.

• An injury punctures a blood vessel in the body
• Platelets congregate to form a plug
• Prothrombin activator is released by platelets and damaged tissue
• A cascade of enzymatic activity results in which calcium ions convert prothrombin to thrombin
• Fibrin threads form and trap red blood cells

25

Blood type A

Type A antigen
Anti-B antibodies

26

Blood type B

Type B antigens
Anti-A antibodies

27

Type AB blood

Type A and B antigens
No antibodies

28

Type O blood

No antigens
Anti-A and anti-B antibodies

29

Blood type depends upon the antigens as well as whether a person has or does not have Rh factor on the _______.

red blood cells

30

If a fetus is Rh+ and its mother is Rh-, Rh+ ______ can leak across the placenta and cause the mother to _____ anti-Rh antibodies.

antigens, produce

31

In a subsequent pregnancy with an _____ child, the anti-Rh antibodies could cross the placenta and _____ the unborn child's RBCs.

Rh+, destroy

32

The baby will be ____ anemic and hemolytic disease will ______ after birth.

severely, continue

33

The cardiovascular system transports ______ and nutrients to the cells of all the organs.

Oxygen

34

Blood vessels also transport _____ from the cells which is later _____ by the urinary system.

waste, excreted

35

Contractions of the ______ keep blood moving while the _____ protects the heart and produces red blood cells.

muscular system, skeletal system

36

The cardiovascular system transports the ______ produced by the endocrine system, moving them from _____ to their target organs.

hormones, glands

37

Interactions between the cardiovascular system and ____ other body systems helps the body maintain its internal ______ or homeostasis.

all, balance