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Flashcards in Ch 14 vocab Deck (42):
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A term used to describe a group of symptoms caused by myocardial ischemia; includes angina and myocardial infarction

Acute coronary syndrome

1

A heart attack; death of heart muscle following obstruction of blood flow to it. Acute in this context means "new" or "happening right now"

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)

2

Transient (short-lived) chest discomfort caused by partial or temporary blockage of blood flow to heart muscle

Angina pectoris

3

The front surface of the body; the side facing you in the standard anatomic position.

Anterior

4

The main artery, which receives blood from the left ventricle and delivers it to all the other arteries that carry blood to the tissues of the body.

Aorta

5

A weakness in the wall of the aorta that makes it susceptible to rupture.

Aortic aneurysm

6

The one-way valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta and keeps blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after the left ventricle ejects its blood into the aorta; one of four heart valves.

Aortic valve

7

An irregular or abnormal heart rhythm.

Arrhythmia

8

The complete absence of heart electrical activity.

Asystole

9

A disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of blood vessels, eventually leading to partial or complete blockage of blood flow.

Atherosclerosis

10

One of two (right and left) upper chambers of the heart. The right atrium receives blood from the vena cava and delivers it to the right ventricle. The left atrium receives blood from pulmonary veins and delivers it to the left ventricle.

Atrium

11

The ability of cardiac muscle cells to contact without stimulation from the nervous system.

Automaticity

12

The part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary activities of the body such as the heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion of food.

Autonomic nervous system

13

A slow heart rate, less than 60 beats/min.

Bradycardia

14

A state in which the heart fails to generate effective and detectable blood flow; pulses are not palpable in cardiac arrest, even if muscular and electrical activity continues in the heart.

Cardiac arrest

15

A state in which not oxygen is delivered to the tissues of the body, caused by low output of blood from the heart. It can be a severe complication of a large acute myocardial infarction, as well as other conditions.

Cardiogenic shock

16

A measure of the volume of blood circulated by the heart in 1 minute, calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate.

Cardiac output

17

A disorder in which the heart loses part of its ability to effectively pump blood, usually as a result of damage to the heart muscle and usually resulting in a backup of fluid into the lungs.

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

18

The blood vessels that carry blood and nutrients to the heart muscle.

Coronary arteries

19

To shock a fibrillating (chaotically beating) heart with specialized electrical current in an attempt to restore a normal, rhythmic beat.

Defibrillate

20

Swelling in the parts of the body closest to the ground, caused by collection of fluid in the tissues; a possible sign of congestive heart failure

Dependent edema

21

Widening of a tubular structure such as a coronary artery

Dilation

22

A condition in which the inner layers of an artery, such as the aorta, become separated, allowing blood (at high pressures) to flow between the layers

Dissecting aneurysm

23

An emergency situation created by excessively high blood pressure, which can lead to serious complications such as stroke or aneurysm

Hypertension emergency

24

Death of a body tissue, usually caused by interruption of its blood supply

Infarction

25

The part of the body or any body part nearer to the feet

Inferior

26

A lack of oxygen that deprives tissues of necessary nutrients, resulting from partial or complete blockage of blood flow; potentially reversible because permanent injury has not yet occurred

Ischemia

27

The inside diameter of an artery or other hollow structure

Lumen

28

The heart muscle

Myocardium

29

A blockage, usually of a tubular structure such as a blood vessel

Occlusion

30

The part of the autonomic nervous system that controls vegetative functions such as digestion of food and relaxation

Parasympathatic nervous system

31

The flow of blood through body tissues and vessels

Perfusion

32

The back surface of the body; the side away from you in the standard anatomic position

Posterior

33

The volume of blood ejected with each ventricular contraction

Stroke volume

34

The part of the body or any body part nearer to the head

Superior

35

The part of the autonomic nervous system that controls active functions such as responding to fear (also known as the flight-or-fight system)

Sympathetic nervous system

36

A fainting spell or transient loss of consciousness

Syncope

37

A rapid heart rate, more than 100 beats/min

Tachycardia

38

A blood clot that has formed within a blood vessel and is floating within the bloodstream

Thromboembolism

39

One of two (right and left) lower chambers of the heart. The left ventricle recieves blood from the left atrium (upper chamber) and delivers blood to the aorta. The right ventricle recieves blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery

Ventricle

40

Disorganized, ineffective twitching of the ventricles, resulting in no blood flow and a state of cardiac arrest

Ventricular fibrillation

41

A rapid heart rhythm in which the electrical impulse begins in the ventricle (instead of the atrium), which may result in inadequate blood flow and eventually deteriorate into cardiac arrest

Ventricular tachycardia