Ch. 17 Fungi, Plants, & the Colonization of Land Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Ch. 17 Fungi, Plants, & the Colonization of Land > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 17 Fungi, Plants, & the Colonization of Land Deck (47):
1

Mycorhiza

A mutualistic association of plant roots and fungi

2

What is the difference between plants and algae?

Plants...
- adapted to terrestrial life
- leaf photosynthesizes
- cuticle and stomata
- stem supports the plant
- roots anchor the plant and absorb water

Algae...
- adapted to aquatic life
- supported by surrounding water
- whole alga photosynthesizes (absorbs water, CO2, and minerals)
- anchored by a holdfast

3

Cuticle

Waxy coating on surface of stems/leaves that help retain water (prevent water loss)

4

Stomata

A pore surrounded by the guard cells in the epidermis of leaf; when opened, CO2 enters leaf and water/O2 exit (allow gas exchange)

5

Vascular Tissue

network of cells forming narrow tubes, extends throughout plant body

6

Xylem

Made of dead cells forming microscopic pipes that convey water and minerals up from the roots

7

Phloem

Consist of living cells and distributes sugars throughout plant

8

What are the 2 types of vascular tissue?

Xylem and Phloem

9

Gametangia

A reproductive organ that houses and protects the gametes of plants

10

Charophytes

A member of group of green algae closely related to plants; represent ancestors of plant kingdom

11

Sporangium

A bulbous structure at tips of some branches

12

Spore

A haploid cell can develop into multicellular individual w/o fusing with another cell

13

Bryophytes

One of a group of plants that lack xylem and phloem nonvascular plants (includes mosses and close relatives)
- Lack internal support and have flagellated sperm

14

Vascular Plant

A plant w/ xylem and phloem
- 2 types: seed and no seed

15

Seed

Plant embryo packaged with food supply w/ protective covering

16

Pollination

In seed plants, the delivery, by wind/animals, of pollen from male parts of plant to stigma of a carpel on a female

17

Gymnosperms

naked seed plant; its seed said to be naked b/c it is not enclosed in fruit

18

Angiosperm

Flowering plant, which forms seeds inside protective chamber called an overy

19

What are the 2 types of seeds?

1) Gymnosperms
2) Angiosperms

20

What are the 4 adaptations of life (main lineages of plant kingdom)?

1) Gametangia - protect gamete/zygote/embryo
2) Vascular Tissue - give rise to modern plant
3) Seeds - dominates plant kingdom
4) Flowers - dominates the seed plants

21

Explain Alternation of Generation

1. Haploid male/female gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis
2. Fertilization occurs in diploid zygote
3. Zygote undergoes mitosis and develops into diploid sporophyte
4. Sporophyte produces haploid spores in meiosis
5. Complete 1 life cycle – spore develops by mitosis into multicellular haploid gametophyte

22

Sporophytes

diploid (2n) individuals

23

Gametophyte

Haploid (n) individuals

24

Explain the life cycle of a fern.

Dominant sporophyte (most plants)

1. Gametophyte have flagellated sperm that require moisture to get to egg
2. Zygote remains on gametophyte
3. Develops into sporophyte
4. Cells in sporangia undergo meiosis producing haploid spores
5. Spores are released & developed into gametophytes by mitosis

25

Fossil Fuels

energy deposit formed from the remains of extinct organisms

26

Conifers

Gymnosperm, or naked seed plant, produces cone

27

Ovules

Reproductive structure in seed plant; contains female gametophyte and developing egg develops into seed

28

Pollen Grains

In seed plant, male gametophyte develops w/in the anthers of stamens

29

Flowers

in angiosperm, short stem w/ four sets of modified leaves, bearing structures that function in sexual reproduction

30

Sepals

modified leaf of flowering plant; encloses and protects flower bud before it opens

31

Petals

modified lead of flowering plant; often colorful parts of flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators

32

Carpel

female part of flower, consisting of stalk w/ an ovary at base and stigma, which traps pollen, at tip (female)

33

Ovary

Basal portion of carpel in which egg – containing ovules - develops

34

Stigma

sticky tip of flower’s carpel, which traps pollen grains

35

Stamen

pollen producing male reproductive part of flower, consisting of stalk and anther (male)

36

Anther

Sac which pollen grains develop, located at tip of stamen

37

What are the parts of a flower?

Sepals, petals
Stamen and anther
Carpel, stigma, and ovary

38

Explain the life cycle of angiosperm

1. Haploid spores in anthers develop in pollen grains; male gametophytes
2. Haploid spore in each ovule develops into female gametophyte, which produces egg
3. Pollination and growth of pollen tube
4. Creates zygote
5. Seed develops from each ovule
6. Ovary wall thickens, forming fruit that encloses the seeds
7. Seed germinates and embryo grows into plant

39

Fruit

Ripened, thickened ovary of flower, which protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal

40

Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom that contains fungi

41

Fungi

heterotrophic eukaryote that digests it food externally and absorbs resulting small nutrient molecules

42

Hyphae

one of many filaments making up body of fungus

43

Mycelium

densely branched network of hyphae in fungus

44

Dikaryotic phase

series of stages in life cycle of many fungi in which cells contain 2 nuclei

45

Fruiting Body

stage in organism’s life cycle that functions only in reproduction

46

Mating Types

group of sexually compatible individuals in population

47

Lichens

mutualistic association b/w fungus and alga or b/w fungus and cyanbacterium