Chapter 30: How Animals Move Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 30: How Animals Move Deck (86):
1

Movement

All living things are able to do this and a major characteristic of life
- most complex in animals

2

What are the 3 factors that movement is based on?

1) Habitat
2) Complexity
3) Needs

3

Locomotion

Moving body from one place to another
- requires energy to overcome gravity and friction

4

What are the advantage/disadvantage of movement by land?

Advantage: Less friction/resistance
Disadvantage: Air gives little support to body --> powerful muscles/strong skeletal support

5

What are the advantage/disadvantage of movement by water?

Advantage: gravity is not an issue b/c weight is supported by buoyancy
Disadvantage: Lots of friction --> sleek streamline shape, use jet propulsion, specialized legs

6

What are the advantage/disadvantage of movement by air?

Same as land! But there are wings involved with air foils.

7

How do air foils in wings work?

The shape of the wing/air foil will alter the air currents to create lift, thus overcoming the downward pull of gravity.
- The pressure will be higher under the wing.

8

What are the 2 contractile systems that is in every form of cell movement?

1) Microfilaments
2) Microtubules

9

What is the function of the skeleton?

- Support + framework
- protection
- aid in movement
- maintain shape

10

What are the 3 types of skeleton?

1) Hydrostatic
2) Exoskeleton
3) Endoskeleton

11

Hydrostatic (Skeleton)

Fluid is held under pressure in a closed body compartment.
- protects other body parts (cushioning from shock)
- gives body shape and provides support for muscle action
- ex. earthworms, cnidarians, jellies

12

Exoskeleton

Rigid, non living external skeleton
- great protection and support
- limited movement due to molting, making it vulnerable
- ex. arthropods, mollusks

13

Endoskeleton

Hard skeleton located w/in soft tissues
- offers movement, flexibility, growth
- limited protection
- ex. sponges, echinoderms, vertebrates

14

What are bones mainly comprised of?

Calcium w/ phosphate or carbonate
- gives bones frigidity and strength

15

What are the two hormones that regulate the exchange of materials in the bone?

Calcitonin and parathymon
- growth hormone + sex hormones for bone growth

16

Joint

Region b/w 2+ bones that provides for flexibility and versatility of bones
- synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses

17

Synarthroses (joints)

Immovable joins
- ex. plates of cranium

18

Amphiarthroses (joints)

Slightly moveable joints
- ex. vertebrae of spine

19

Diarthroses (joints)

Freely moveable joints
- ex. hinges (elbows/knees), balls and sockets (shoulders/hips), pivot (wrist/ankle)

20

Arthritis

"Joint swelling" w/ inflammation that causes stiffness and soreness

21

Osteoporosis

Bones that get thinner, more porous
- hormonal changes due to eating

22

How many bones are there in the average human body?

206 bones
- 100+ in the hand/feet alone
- 18% of body weight

23

What are the two major divisions of the skeletal system?

1) Axial Skeleton
2) Trunk Skeleton

24

Axial Skeleton

Components of the skeletal system that supports the central trunk of the body
- Skull (cranium, facial bones, ossicles, mandible)
- Trunk (vertebral column: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx
- Sternum
- Costae (true ribs/false ribs)

25

Skull

Boney framework of head
- teaches of evolution
- teeth can show age and roof of mouth for if its ape or man like
- apart of the axial skeleton

26

What bones are included in the skull of the axial skeleton?

Cranium, facial, ossicles, mandible

27

What bones are included in the trunk of the axial skeleton?

- Vertebral column (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx)
- sternum
- costae (true ribs/fasle ribs)

28

Vertebral Column

Spine made of 26 bones
- cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx

29

Cervical

7 bones that make up the neck area
- apart of the vertebral column of the trunk section of the axial skeleton

30

Thoracic

12 bones that pass thru the chest and are the only vertebrae with ribs
- apart of the vertebral column of the trunk section of the axial skeleton

31

Lumbar

Largest vertebrae, 5 lower bones of the back
- apart of the vertebral column of the trunk section of the axial skeleton

32

Sacral

5 bones as a child that becomes one bone as an adult
- apart of the vertebral column of the trunk section of the axial skeleton

33

Coccyx

Tailbone
- apart of the vertebral column of the trunk section of the axial skeleton

34

Sternum

Breast bone that supports ribs
- xiphoid process = tip sharp of sternum

35

Costae

24 ribs (12 pairs) that protect heart, lungs, kidney, etc.
- true ribs = attached to sternum
- false ribs = floating ribs

36

Apendicular Skeleton

Components of the skeletal system that supports the fins of a fish or the arms/legs of a land vertebrate
- Upper Division and Lower Division

37

What are the bones in the upper division of the appendicular skeleton?

- Pectoral Girdle (clavicle, scapula)
- Humerus
- Radius
- Ulna
- Carpals
- Metacarpals
- Phalanges

38

What are the bones in the lower division of the appendicular skeleton?

- Pelvic Girdle (ilium, ischium, and pubis)
- Femur
- Patella
- Tibia
- Fibula
- Calcaneous
- Tarsals
- Metatarsals
- Phalanges

39

Pectoral Girdle

2 collar bones
- clavicle and scapula

40

Clavicle

2 most commonly broken bones

41

Scapula

The bone that supports the upper body

42

Humerus

Large bone of the upper arm

43

Radius

Bone of the lower arm that matches up with the thumb

44

Ulna

Bone of the lower arm that matches up with the pinky

45

Carpals

8 cube shaped bones in the hand that allow for flexibility

46

Metacarpals

5 bones that make up the palm of the hand

47

Phalanges

14 bones in the hand

48

Pelvic Girdle

Hip bones that show gender (broader for women)
- ilium (side), ischium (lower), pubis (front)

49

Femur

Largest bone that is the strongest aka the thigh bone
- produces the most bone marrow

50

Patella

Bone that protects the knee joint

51

Tibia

Shin that is the larger lower leg bone

52

Fibula

Small, non weight bearing bone

53

Calcaneous

Heel bone

54

Tarsals

7 ankle bones

55

Metatarsals

5 foot bones

56

Ball-and-Socket Joints

Where the humerus joins to the shoulder girdle and in the hip where the femur joins to the pelvic girdle
- enables use to rotate arms/legs

57

Hinge Joint

Joint b/w the humerus and the head of the ulna permits movement in a single plane for the elbow/knee

58

Pivot Joint

Joint that enables us to rotate the forearm at the elbow

59

Yellow Bone Marrow

Contained in the central cavity that is mostly stored fat brought into the bone by blood

60

Red Bone Marrow

Specialized tissue that produces our blood cells

61

Tendons

Fibrous connective tissue connecting a muscle to a bone

62

Skeletal Muscle

Striated muscle attached to the skeleton. The contraction of striated muscles provides voluntary movements of the body.

63

Myofibrils

Threadlike strands in each muscle fiber made of protein filaments (actin and myosin)

64

Sarcomeres

Basic unit fo muscle contraction
- composed of actin and myosin
- region of one Z like to the next

65

Thin filament

A double strand of the protein actin and one stand of a regulatory protein, coiled around each other

66

Thick filament

Number of parallel strands of the protein myosin

67

Sliding Filament Model

Muscle contraction is the shortening/lengthening of sarcomere
- cell stimulated so cross bridges connect and myosin heads curl in
- requires a lot of ATP --> many mitochondria
- sarcomere contracts when its thin filaments slide against its thick filaments

68

Motor Units

A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls

69

Neuromuscular Junctions

A synapse b/w an axon of a motor neuron and a muscle fiber

70

What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?

1) Skeletal (striated)
2) Smooth
3) Cardiac

71

Skeletal (Striated)

Attached to bones
- rapid contraction (voluntary control)
- fatigue quickly
- block like cells w/ thick/think filaments

72

Smooth

Hollow organs, blood vessels (arteries), tubes + pathways
- slow contraction, involuntary
- fatigue slowly
- long slender rods, tapered at both ends

73

Cardiac

Found in the heart
- rhythmic contractions, involuntary (never rests)
- looks like skeletal, acts like smooth, branched

74

What are the muscles in the head?

Orbicularis oculi
Orbicularis orsis
Buccinator
Masseter
Temporal
Tongue

75

Orbicularis oculi

Circular muscles around eyes

76

Orbicularis orsis

Circular muscles around mouth

77

Buccinator

Fleshy part of cheek, puff & blow

78

Masseter

Follows the lien of jaw
- helps with speech and chewing

79

Temporal

At the right angle of the head
- helps with speech and chewing

80

Tongue

Most muscular and moveable

81

What are the muscles of the neck?

Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius

82

Sternocleidomastoid

Muscles along the sides of the neck

83

Trapezius

Muscle along the back of the neck (Also back muscle)

84

What are the muscles of the upper extremities?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Pectorals major
Serratus anterior
Deltoid
Biceps brachii
Triceps brachii
Flexor + Extensor digitorum

85

What are the muscles of the trunk?

Diaphragm
Intercostals
Abdominal wall (internal oblique, external oblique, transversus abdominus)
Perineum

86

Lower Extremities

Gluteus maximus
Adductors
Sartorius
Quadriceps femoris
Biceps femoris
Gastrocnemius
Tibialis anterior
Flexor + Extensor Digitorum