Ch. 18 The Evolution of Animal Diversity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 18 The Evolution of Animal Diversity Deck (104):
1

Animalia

The kingdom that contains the animals

2

Blastula

An embryonic stage that marks the end of cleavage during animal development; a hallow ball of cells in many species

3

Gastrula

The embryonic stage resulting from gastrulation in animal development; most animals have gastrula made up of 3 layers of cells (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm)

4

Larva

An immature individual that is structurally and often ecologically very different from an adult

5

Metamorphosis

The transformation of a larva into an adult

6

From where did the animal kingdom probably originate?

Colonial protists

7

Invertebrate

Animal that lacks a backbone

8

Porifera

The phylum that contains the sponges, characterized by choanocytes, a porous body wall, and no true tissues

9

Sponge

Marine or freshwater, living singly or clusters by budding (regeneration)

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Radial Symmetry

An arrangement of the body parts of an organism like pieces of a pie around an imaginary central axis; any slice passing longitudinally through a radially symmetrical organism's central axis divides it into mirror-image halves

11

What are the 3 layers of a sponge (porifera)?

1) Flattened cells w/ pink pore
2) Amoebocytes
3) Choanocyte

12

Amoebocytes

An amoeba-like cell that moves by pseudopodia found in most animals; may digest and distribute food, dispose of wastes, make skeleton, fight infections, change into other cell types

13

Choanocytes

A flagellated feeding cell found in sponges also called a collar cell, it has a collar like ring that traps food particles around the base of its flagellum

14

Choanoflagellate

An ancestral colonial protist from which sponges, and possibly all animals, probably arose (bottom of ponds/shallow sea)

15

Cnidaria

The phylum that contains the hydras, jelly fishes, sea anemones, corals, and related animals characterized by enidocytes, radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, polyps, and medusae
- can have both polyp and medusa

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Polyp

One of two types of cnidarian body forms; a columnar, hydra-like body (stationary)

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Medusa

One of two body types of cnidarian body forms; an umbrella-like body form aka jellyfish (free moving)

18

Gastrovascular cavity

A digestive compartment w/ a single opening, the mouth; may function in circulation, body support, waste disposal, gas exchange, and digestion

19

Cnidocytes

A specialized cell for which the phylum Cnidaria is named; consists of a capsule containing a fine thread, which, when discharged, functions in defense and prey capture

20

What are the 7 characteristics of an anima?

1) Eukaryotic
2) Multicellular
3) Heterotrophic
4) Lack cell walls
5) Ingestion (internal digestion)
6) Unique intercellular junctions
7) Embryonic stages (gametes -> zygote -> blastula -> gastrula)

21

What are the criteria of classification?

1) Symmetry
- radial or bilateral
2) Level of organization
- tissue level or organ system level
3) Embryonic Tissue
4) Body plan
- gastrovascular cavity or complete digestive system
5) Body Cavity
- pseudocoelom or coelom

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Symmetry

How body parts are arranged around a median plane

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Body Cavity

Fluid filled space b/w digestive tract

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Pseudocoelom

A body cavity that is in direct contact with the wall of the digestive tract and muscle layer
- Lacks mesoderm

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Coelom

A body cavity completely lined w/ mesoderm and extends from body wall and wraps around digestive tract
- There is mesoderm so more flexible to grow and independently
- flexible, organs may grow/move independently, prevents internal injury

26

What are the 9 phyla of Animalia?

Invertebrates...
1) Porifera
2) Cnidaria
3) Platyhelminthes
4) Nematoda
5) Mollusca
6) Annelida
7) Arthropoda
8) Echinodermata

Vertebrae...
9) Chordata

27

What are the 6 classes of vertebraes?

1) Agnatha
2) Fish
3) Amphibians
4) Reptilian
5) Aves
6) Mammalia

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Agnatha

Jawless fish w/ suction cap mouth and sharp teeth (parasitic

A class of vertebrate animals that are superficially fishlike but lack jaws and paired fins

29

Fish

Jawed vertebrates w/ gills and paired fins
- chrondrichthyes or Osteichthyes

30

Chrondrichthyes

Cartilaginous
- sharks, rays, "living fossils"
- actue senses, strong jaws (detect electrical fields and water pressure)
- can't stop swimming (can't pump water)
- poor vision
- lateral line system

31

Osteichthyes

Bony (bony fish)
- tuna, salmon, trout
- operculum (protective flap for gills)
- swim bladder for buoyancy in water
- ray fins
- ray finned fish or lobe finned fish

32

Amphibians

Live on land, chained to water
- newt, salamander
- moist skin, young are tad poles w/ gills, external fertilization, jelly like sperm (why water)
- metamorphosis (tadpole -> frog)

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Tadpole vs Frog

Tadpole is a legless taled aquatic algae eater w/ gills
Frog is a 4 legged, tailless, and terrestrial insect eater

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Reptilian

Do not require water
- drier skin w/ scales, amniotic egg, internal fertilization
- ectothermic
- snakes, lizards, turtles, alligators

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Aves

A class of vertebrate animals that consists of the birds
- reptilian ancestry
- adapted body for flight (hollow beak/bones, short stubby tale, breath muscles)
- endothermic
- elongated scales into feathers

36

Mammalia

A class of vertebrae that consists of mammals
- Evolved from reptiles, nocturnal, long before dinosaurs
- endothermic
- hair, fur, live birth, internal development, mammory glands

37

What are 4 unique features of mammalia?

1) hair + fur
2) live birth
3) internal development
4) mammory glands

38

What does "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" mean?

All animals exhibit features that reflect their evolutionary feature

39

What are the 3 groups of mammalia?

1) Monotremes
2) Marsupials
3) eutherians/placental

40

Bilateral symmetry

An arrangement of body parts such that an organism can be divided equally by a single cut passing longitudinally through it; has mirror-image right and left

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Anterior

Pertaining to the front/head of a bilaterally symmetrical animal

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Posterior

Pertaining to the rear/tail of a bilaterally symmetrical animal

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Dorsal

Pertaining to the back of a bilaterally symmetrical animal

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Ventral

Pertaining to the underside/bottom of a bilaterally symmetrical animal

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Lateral

Pertaining to the side of a bilaterally symmetrical animal

46

Platyhelminthes

The phylum that contains the flatworms, the bilateral animals w/ a thin/flat body form, gastrovascular cavity or no digestive system, and no body cavity; the free living flatworms, flukes, and tapeworms

47

Flatworms

A member of the phylum Platyhelminthes
- free living flatworms, fluke, tapeworms

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Free living flatworms

Planarian w/ head w/ 2 large eyespots and flap at each side to detect chemicals and simple brain
- cilia + muscles

49

Fluke

One group of parasitic flatworms
- copulate freely = produce thousands eggs a day
- blood flukes cause schistosomiasis

50

Tapeworms

A Parasitic flatworm characterized by the absence of a digestive tract and a repeating ribbonlike body

51

Nemotoda

The phylum that contains the roundworms or nematodes; characterized by a pseudocoelom, a cylindrical, wormlike, body form, and a tough cuticle

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Roundworm

A member of the phylum Nematoda

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Cuticle

In animals, a tough, nonliving outer layers of the skin. In plants, a waxy coating on the surface of stems and leaves that help retain water.

54

Mollusca

The phylum that contains the mollusks; characterized by a muscular foot, mantle cavity, and radula
- gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods

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Mantle

In a mollusk, the outgrowth of the body surface that drapes over the animal; produces the shell and forms the mantle cavity

Function: respiration, waste disposal, sensory reception, house a gill for oxygen extraction and dispose of liquid waste

56

Radula

A toothed, rasping organ used to scrap up or shred food; found in many mollusks

57

What are the 3 cavities of coelom?

1) Heart
2) Reproductive Organs
3) Kidney

58

Gastropods

A member of the largest group of mollusks.
- snails/slugs
- freshwater, sea water, terrestrial
- ones on land have a mantle cavity developed into lung

59

Bivalves

A member of mollusks that includes clams, mussels, scallops, oysters
- shells divided into 2 halves hinged together
- sedentary (sand/mud)

60

Cephalopod

A member of a group of mollusks that includes squids/octopus
- built for speed/agility
- heavy/large shells, some small/internal shells or altogether missing
- marine predators w/ beaklike jaws and radula
- large brains, sophisticated sense organs

61

Body Segmentation

Subdivision along the length of an animal body into a series of repeated parts called segments
- body flexibility/mobility

62

Annelida

The phylum that contains the segmented worms, or annelids characterized by uniform segmentation
- includes earthworms, polychaetes, and leeches
- distinct head/tail w/ similar body segments
- sea, freshwater, damp soil habitats
- mainly bottom dwelling scavengers

63

Earthworms

Extracts nutrients as soil passes through digestive tube
- undigested go thru anus and feces actually improves soil texture

64

Polychaetes

Largest group, segmented appendages and hard bristles that increase surface area for oxygen and dispose waste
- marine living in tubes and extend appendages to trap food

65

Leeches

Blood sucking habits, free living organisms for small invertebrate
- fresh water, terrestrial species inhabit moist vegetation in tropics
- used for bloodletting

66

Arthropods

The most diverse phylum in the animal kingdom; characterized by chitinous exoskeleton, molting, jointed appendages, and body formed of distinct segments
- horseshoe crab, arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes, and insects
- evolved from annelids (or ancestor)

67

Exoskeleton

Hard, external skeleton that protects an animal and provides points of attachment for muscles
- layers of chitin mixed with protein

68

Molting

In arthropods, the process of shedding an old exoskeleton and secreting a new, larger one

69

Horseshoe crab

"living fossil" w/ little change

70

Arachnids

A member of a major arthropod group that includes spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites

71

Crustaceans

A member of a major arthropod group that includes lobsters, crayfish, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles

72

Millipedes

Wormlike landlubbers that eat decaying plant matter (2 pairs of legs per segment)

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Centipedes

Terrestrial carnivores w/ poisonous claws and one pair of legs for each segment

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Incomplete metamorphosis

The transformation of young/larvae into adults that are similar to the young except in size/body proportions
- orthoptera, odonata, hemiptera

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Complete metamorphosis

The transformation of a larva into an adult that looks very different, and often functions very differently in its environment, than the larva
- coleoptera, lepidoptera, diptera, hymenoptera

76

What are the 7 common orders of insects?

1) Orthoptera
- have biting/chewing mouthparts and herbivorous
2) Odonata
- 2 pairs of similar wings and biting mouthpart (carnivorous)
3) Hemiptera
- true bugs, piercing/sucking mouthparts, 2 pairs of wings
4) Coleoptera
- beetles, occur everywhere, biting/chewing mouthpart, carnivorous/herbivores/omnivores, 2 pairs of wings
5) Lepidoptera
- moth/butterfly, 2 pairs of wings covered by scales, mouthpart is a long drinking tube that coils
6) Diptera
- flies, single pairs of wings, small/club shaped organs (halteres) for maintaining balance, lapping mouthparts
7) Hymenoptera
- 2 pairs of wings, narrow waist (ants, bees, wasps)

77

Echinodermata

The phylum of echinoderms, including sea stars, sea urchins, and sand dollars; characterized by a rough or spiny skin, a water vascular system, an endoskeleton, and radial symmetry in adults

78

Endoskeleton

A hard skeleton located w/in the soft tissues of an animal; includes spicules of sponges, the hard plates of echinoderms, and the cartilage and body skeletons of many vertebrae

79

Water vascular system

In echinoderms, a radially arranged system of water filled canals that branch into extensions called tube feet; the system provides movement & circulates water, facilitating gas exchange and waste disposal

80

Chordata

The phylum of the chordates; characterized by a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a notochord, gill structures, and a post anal tail
- lancelets, tunicates, and vertebrates

81

What are 4 distinct features of chordata?

1) Dorsal hollow nerve cord
2) Notochord
3) Gill structures
4) Post anal tail

82

Notochord

A flexible, cartilage-like, longitudinal rod located b/w the digestive tract and nerve cord in chordate animals; present only in embryos of many species

83

Vertebrate

In chordate animal w/ a backbone

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Invertebrate

An animal that lacks a backbone

85

Tunicates

One group of invertebrate chordates; stationary, saclike, large gill apparatus
- common on coral reefs, rocks, boats

86

Lancelets

One group of invertebrate chordates; feed on suspended particles; exhibit the four features, segmented muscles
- closest living relative to vertebrates
- paedomorphosis (key to evolution)

87

Cartilaginous fishes

flexible skeleton made of cartilage

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Lateral line system

A row of sensory organs along each side of a fish's body; sensitive to changes in water pressure, it enables a fish to detect minor vibrations in the water

89

Bony fish

Stiff skeleton reinforced by hard calcium salts

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Operculum

A protective flap on each side of a fish's head that covers a chamber housing the girls (allows breathing w/o swimming)

91

Swim bladder

A gas filled internal sac that helps body fish maintain buoyancy

92

Ray finned fish

A bony fish having fins supported by thin flexible skeletal rays; all but one species of body fish are rayfin

93

Lobe finned fish

A bony fish w/ strong muscular fins supported by long extinct except for coelacanth

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Amniotic Egg

A shelled egg in which an embryo develops w/in a fluid-filled amniotic sac and is nourished by yolk; produces by reptiles, birds, and egg laying mammals, it enables them to complete their life cycles on dry land

95

Ectothermic

An animal that warms itself mainly by absorbing heat from its surrounding

96

Endothermic

An animal that derives most of its body heat from its own metabolism

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Monotremes

An egg-laying mammal such as duck billed platypus

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Placenta

In the mammals, the organ that provides nutrients/oxygen to the embryo and helps dispose of its metabolic wastes; formed of the embryo's chorion and the mother's endometrial blood vessels

99

Marsupials

A pouched mammal, such as a kangaroo, opossum, or koala; give birth to embryonic offspring that completes development while housed in a pouch and attached to nipples on the mother's abdomen
- australia, new zealand, central/south america

100

Marsupium

The external pouch on the abdomen of a female marsupial

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Eutherians

Placental mammals; those whose young complete their embryonic development w/in the uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta

102

Placentals

Mammals whose young complete their embryonic development in the uterus, nourished via the mother's blood vessels in the placenta

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Protostome

An animal w/ a coelom that develops from solid masses of cells that arise b/w the digestive tube and the body wall of the embryo; includes mollusks, annelids, and arthropods

104

Deuterostome

An animal w/ a coelom that forms from hollow outgrowths of the digestive tube of the early embryo;includes echinoderms and chordates