Ch. 23 Circulation Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Ch. 23 Circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 23 Circulation Deck (77):
1

Circulatory System

The organ system that transports materials such as nutrients, O2, and hormones to body cells and transports CO2 and other wastes from body cells

2

Capillaries

A microscopic blood vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a vein or between an arteriole and venule; enables the exchange of nutrients and dissolved gases between the blood and interstitial fluid
- enables diffusion via intricate network

3

What is the function of the circulatory system?

Transport O2 and nutrients
Convey metabolic wastes to waste disposal organs (lungs, kidney)

4

What is the circulatory system's 2 key roles in homeostasis?

1) Exchanged molecules cia interstitial fluid -> control makeup of environment cell lives in
2) Control makeup of blood by continuously moving it through organs

5

Blood

A type of connective tissue w/ a fluid matrix called plasma which blood cells are suspended

6

What are the 2 basic types of circulatory system?

1. Open Circulatory System
2. Closed Circulatory System (Cardiovascular System)

7

Open Circulatory System

A circulatory system in which blood is pumped through open ended vessels and out among the body cells.
- blood and interstitial fluid are one and the same
- invertebrate (mollusks + arthropods)

8

Closed Circulatory System (Cardiovascular System)

A closed circulatory system w/ a heart and branching network of arteries, veins, and capillaries
- blood is confined to blood vessels
- interstitial fluid is separate
- vertebrates

9

What are the 3 kinds of blood vessels?

Arteries, veins, capillaries

10

Arteries

A vessel that carries blood away from the heart to other parts of the body
- O2 rich
- branch/subdivide for more surface area to reach more cells
- arteriole

11

Veins

A vessel that returns blood to the heart
- O2 depleted and wastes
- converge (get bigger) closer to heart
- veiniole

12

Capillaries

A vessel that conveys blood b/w arteries and veins
- sit of exchange b/w blood and cells (diffusion)
- small and thin (single file blood cells for maximized diffusion)

13

What are the 2 chambers of the heart?

Atrium and Ventricle

14

Atrium

A heart chamber that receives blood via veins
- thin walled

15

Ventricle

A heart chamber that pumps blood out of heart
- thick walled

16

Arterioles

A vessel that conveys blood b/w an artery and capillary bed
- smallest division of artery

17

Capillary beds

Network of capillaries that infiltrate every organ and tissue in the body

18

Venules

A vessel that conveys blood b/w a capillary bed and a vein

19

What are the 2 blood circuits of vertebrates?

1. Pulmonary Circuit
2. Systemic Circuit

20

Pulmonary Circuit

Consists of all blood vessels that carry the blood from the heart to the lungs and back
- dumps off CO2, reloads O2

21

Systemic Circuit

All blood vessels that carry the blood from the heart to the body and back
- delivers oxygen and materials to all cells

22

What is the trip of blood in the cardiovascular system?

1) Right ventricle pumps blood to lungs
2) Pulmonary arteries
3) Blood in lungs unloads CO2, load O2 and flow to left atriumn via pulmonary veins
4) O2 flows into left atrium
5) O2 flows to left ventricle
6) Aorta
7) Upper body
8) Abdominal organs and lower body
9) Superior Vena Cava
10) Inferior Vena Cava
11) Venae cavae to right atrium to right ventricle

23

Pulmonary Arteries

A large blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to a lung
- only artery with deoxygenated blood

24

Pulmonary Vein

A blood vessel that conveys blood from a lung to the heart
- oxygenated blood

25

Aorta

An artery that conveys blood directly from the heart to other arteries
- biggest

26

Superior Vena Cava

A large vein that returns O2 poor blood to the heart from the upper body and head

27

Inferior Vena Cava

A large vein that returns O2 poor blood to the heart from the lower, or posterior, part of the body

28

Cardiac Cycle

The alternating contractions and relaxations of the heart
1) Diastole
2) Systole

29

Diastole

The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill w/ blood
- blood enters left and right atrium
- valves b/w atria and ventricles are open -> blood flow
- 0.4 sec

30

Systole

The contraction stage of the heart cycle, when the heart chambers actively pump blood
- 0.1 sec atria fill w/ blood
- 0.3 sec ventricle contract

31

Cardiac Output

The volume of blood per minute the left ventricle pumps into the aorta

32

Pacemakers
SA (sinoatrial node)

A specialized region of cardiac muscle that maintains the heart's pumping rhythm (heartbeat) by setting the rate at which the heart contracts
- wall of the right atrium

33

AV (atrioventricular) Node

Relay point b/w right atrium and ventricle w/ delay of 0.1 sec for atria to contract/empty before ventricles contract

34

Artificial Pacemaker

Tiny electronic device surgically implanted near AV node

35

Heart Attack

Death of cardiac muscle cells and the resulting failures of the heart to deliver enough blood to the body

36

Coronary Arteries

The large blood vessel that conveys blood from the aorta to the tissues of the heart

37

Blood Pressure

The force that blood exerts against the walls of blood vessels
- created by beating of heart
- main force driving blood
- depends on cardiac output and resistance to blood flow

38

Pulse

The rhythmic stretching of the arteries caused by the pressure of blood forced thru the arteries by contractions of the ventricles during systole

39

What is the typical blood pressure?

110 - 140 / 70 - 90

40

Low Blood Pressure

Person w/ systolic blood pressure below 100 mm Hg

41

What is blood pressure measured with?

Sphygmomanometer and stethoscope

42

Hypertension

Abnormally high blood pressure; a persistent blood pressure of 140/90 or higher
- caused by reduced flexibility or partial blockage of arteries
- contribute to heart muscle wear out and arterial blockage
- controlled by diet, exercise, medication

43

What percent of body capillaries have blood flowing thru them?

5 - 10 %

44

What are 2 mechanisms that control distribution of blood to capillaries?

Depend on smooth muscle tissue.
- contraction/relaxation fo smooth muscle layer of arteriole wall
- sphincters relaxed/contracted

45

Plasma

The liquid matrix of the blood in which the blood cells are suspended
- 90% water, 10% dissolved substances
- proteins, mineral salts, organic nutrients, nitrogenous wastes, hormones, dissolved salts

46

Platelets (thrombocytes)

A piece of membrane-enclosed cytoplasm from a large cell in the bone marrow of a mammal; a blood clotting element

47

Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)

A blood cell containing hemoglobin, which transports O2
- 25 trillion
- lack nuclei and mitochondria
- biconcave disk w/ surface area for gas exchange
- formed in bone marrow
- 3 to 4 months circulation

48

What hormone stimulates the production of red blood cells in bone marrow?

Erythropoietin

49

Anemia

A condition in which an abnormally low amount of hemoglobin or a low # of red blood cells results in the body cells not receiving enough oxygen
- excessive blood loss, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, bone marrow cancer

50

White Blood Cells (leukocytes)

A blood cell that functions in defending the body against infections and cancer cells
- distinguished by staining properties and shape of nuclei
- irregular size/shape, largest cell, live outside vessel, number varies
- multi-nuclei

51

Phagocytes

A white blood cell that engulfs bacteria, foreign proteins, and the remains of dead body cells

52

Fibrinogen

The plasma protein that is activated to form a blot when a blood vessel is injured

53

Fibrin

Activated form of the blood clotting protein fibrinogen which aggravates into threads that form the fabric of a blood clot

54

Stem Cells

In the bone marrow, a type of cell that gives rise to all the types of blood cells

55

Leukemia

A type of cancer of the blood forming tissues, characterized by an excessive production of white blood cells and an abnormally high # of them in the blood; cancer of the bone marrow cells that produces leukocytes

56

How do different organisms exchange nutrients?

Unicellular use diffusion.
Simple multicellular use gastrovascular.
Complex multicellular use circulatory system.

57

What are the parts of the circulatory system? All of which assist in maintaining homeostasis.

1. Muscular pump (heart)
2. Fluid (blood)
3. Transport tubes (blood vessels)

58

What is the structure of an artery wall?

3 layers...
1) Epithelium - innermost layer, smooth
2) Smooth muscle - thickest layer, elastic
3) Connective tissue - outermost, support

59

What is the structure of vein walls?

Same 3 walls as artery wall but smooth muscle is thinner
- valves

60

What is the structure of capillaries?

1 cell layer of epithelium

61

How is blood allowed to go back up veins?

Muscle contractions and activity.
- muscle pushes blood up and when relaxed, blood doesn't flow back due to veins

62

What are the main arteries?

1) Aorta
2) Carotid
3) Coronary
4) Pulmonary

63

Carotid

Artery located on neck and carries blood to the brain

64

Coronary

Artery that is located on top of heart and provides blood to the heart.

65

What are the major veins?

1) Pulmonary
2) Jugular
3) Superior + Inferior Vena Cava
- Portal

66

Jugular

Blood high in waste (de-O2) from brain to heart

67

Portal

Carries blood from small intestine (w/ nutrients) to liver and branches/subdivides then to the heart

68

Heart

Muscular pump that drives blood circulation.
- located in thoracic cavity
- endocardium, myocardium, pericardium
- cardiac septum w/ 4 chambers

69

What is the structure of the heart?

1. Endocardium - inner, thinnest, smooth
2. Myocardium - middle and thick
3. Pericardium - outermost

70

Right atrium

Receives blood from body

71

Right ventricle

Blood from right atrium to pulmonary artery

72

Left atrium

Receives blood from the lungs

73

Left ventricle

Thickest chamber and pumps blood to aorta

74

What are the 4 heart valves?

1) Tricuspid / Right Atrioventricular
2) Pulmonary Semilunar
3) Mitrovalve / Bicuspid Valve / Left Ventricular Valve
4) Aortic Semilunar

75

What is "lubb dupp"?

Sound of blood against valves
- lubb = contraction of ventricles
- dupp = discharge of blood against semi-lunar valves

76

What are the 2 elements of blood?

Plasma (liquid element) 55%
Corpuscles (blood cells) 45%

77

What are the five varieties of leukocytes (WBC)?

Basophils
Nuetrophils
Monocytes
Esinophil
Lymphocytes