Ch. 4 Tour of the Cell Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Ch. 4 Tour of the Cell > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 4 Tour of the Cell Deck (51):
1

Plasma Membrane

Thin layer of lipids and proteins that sets a cell off from its surroundings and acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into/out of the cell
- consists of phospholipid bilayer

2

Cytoplasm

Everything inside a cell b/w the plasma membrane and nucleus; semi fluid medium and organelles

3

Organelle

A structure with specialized function in cell. Membrane bound.

4

Light Microscope

An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images and project them
- only up to 1000 times
- magnification and resolving power

5

Micrograph

Photograph thru microscope

6

Magnification

Increase in apparent size of an object
- multiply ocular by objective lens

7

Resolving Power

Clarity of an image
- distinguish one object from another

8

Cell Theory

All living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells

9

Electron Microscope

An instrument that focuses on a electron beam thru/onto a specimen
- electromagnets and beam of electrons
- dead organisms due to vacuum
- 2 types: Scanning and Transmission

10

Scanning Electron Microscope

Studies the details of the cell's outer surface

11

Transmission Electron Microscope

Studies the details of internal cell structures

12

What does cell size vary upon?

Function. It also relates to surface area to volume ratio.
- Big enough for cytoplasm, DNA, and needed molecules

13

Prokaryotic Cell

A type of cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus/organelles
- Bacteria/Archaea
- small/primitive
- lack ability to make internal membranes (thus organelles)

14

Nucleoid Region

Region with concentrated mass of DNA (direct contact with cell contents)

15

Ribosomes

Organelle of RNA and protein that functions as a protein synthesis site

16

Bacterial Cell Wall

Rigid cell wall surrounding plasma membrane to protect cell/maintain shape

17

Capsule

Sticky layer that surrounds bacterial cell wall
- protects and glues cell to surfaces

18

Pili

Short projections on cell surface that attach to others

19

Prokaryotic Flagella

Long cell surface projection ion that propels cell thru liquid environment

20

Eukaryotic Cells

Cell with membrane enclosed nucleus and other organelles (eukarya)
- compartmentalization

21

Cellular Metabolism

Chemical activities of cells occurs in fluid w/in organelles so multi-tasking possible
- needs homeostasis

22

Nucleus

Genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell
- surrounded by nuclear envelope

Function: DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, assembly of ribosomal units

23

Chromatin

Combo of DNA and proteins that constitute eukaryotic chromosomes (long fibers)

24

Chromosome

Thread-like, gene-carrying structure most visible in mitosis/meiosis

25

Nuclear Envelope

Double membrane, perforated with pores, that encloses the nucleus and separates it from the rest of the eukaryotic cell

26

Nucleolus

Structure in nucleus where RNA is made and assembled with proteins

27

Endomembrane System

Network of membranous organelles that partition the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells into functional compartments

28

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Extensive membranous network continuous w/ outer nuclear membrane and composed of rough/smooth regions
- manufacture/package

29

Rough ER

Network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm studded with ribosomes that make membrane proteins

Function: Synthesis of membrane protein, secretory protein, hydrolytic enzymes; formation of transport vesicles

30

Secretory Protein

Protein secreted from the cell (ex. antibody)

31

Smooth ER

Network of interconnected membranous tubules in cell's cytoplasm

Function: Lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism in liver cells, detoxification, calcium ion storage

32

Golgi Apparatus

Organelle consisting of stacks of membranous sacs that modify, store, and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum

Function: Modification, temporary storage, transport macromolecules, formation of lysosomes/transport vesicles

33

Lysosome

Digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest cell's food/waste.
- only animals

Function: Digestion of nutrients/bacteria/damaged organelles; destruction of cells

34

Vacuoles

Membrane enclosed sac (in endomembrane system) with various functions

35

Central vacuole

Membrane enclosed sac occupying most of the interior of a plant cell with diverse role in reproduction, growth, and development

36

Chloroplasts

Organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists; enclosed by two concentric membranes; site of photosynthesis
- stroma, thylakoids, grana

Function: Light energy to chemical energy of sugars

37

Mitochondria

An organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs; enclosed by 2 concentric membranes, it is where cell's ATP is made from sugars
- inter membrane space and mitochondrial space

Function: Chemical energy to ATP

38

Cristae

fold of inner membrane of a mitochondrion; enzymes embedded in it to make ATP

39

Cytoskeleton

Framework of fine fibers that extend thru cytoplasm that function as structure/shape
- microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules

Function: Shape, anchor organelles, movement of cell/organelles, signal transmission

40

Microfilaments

Thinnest of 3 protein fibers of cytoskeleton; a solid helical rod composed of globular protein actin; help some cells chance shape/move by assembling at one end and disassembling at another
- cell contraction

41

Intermediate filaments

An intermediate sized protein fiber that is one of of 3 making up cytoskeleton; rope like, made of fibrous proteins
- reinforcing for tension, anchoring organelles

42

Microtubules

Thickest of 3 fibers making up cytoskeleton; straight hollow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins; basis of structure and movement of cilia/flagella
- disassembled/reused
- anchoring/tracking movement of organelles

43

Cilia

Short, numerous appendages that propel protists

44

Flagella

Long, generally less numerous appendages on other protists (9:2 ratio)

45

Cell Junctions

A structure that connects tissue cells to one another

46

Plasmodesmata

An open channel in a plant cell wall, through which strands of cytoplasm connect form adjacent walls (allows cells to pass molecules)

47

Extracellular Matrix

A substance in which the cells of an animal tissue are embedded consists of protein/polysaccharides
- helps hold cells in tissues w/ protection/support

48

Tight Junctions

Junction that binds tissue cells together in a leakproof sheet

49

Anchoring Junctions

Junction that connects tissue cells to each other and allows materials to pass from cell to cell.

50

Communicating Junctions

Channel b/w adjacent tissue cells through which water and other small molecules pass freely

51

What are the 4 categories of Eukaryotic cell organelles?

1) Manufacture
2) Breakdown/Recycle
3) Energy Processing
4) Support/Movement/Communication