Flashcards in Ch.3 Molecules of Cells Deck (65):
CH2O carbon water consisting of sugar molecules
Function: Quick Energy
What are some monomers of carbohydrates?
Glucose, fructose, galactose
All have C6H12O6
Important for life. A chemical compound containing carbon that is synthesized by cells. Carbon atoms will combine with H, O, N, and P. These carbons will allow for structure as it has 4 electrons to make 4 covalent bonds.
- macromolecule, polymer
Chemical compound composed of hydrogen and carbon. Carbons can be in straight chains, branched, and ring like.
Have the same molecular formula but different structure so different properties
Groups of atoms that participate in chemical reactions. Determines the unique properties.
- all polar because oxygen/nitrogen has strong pull
- polar so therefore hydrophilic (needed for water based life)
What are the 4 types of functional group?
What comprises a hydroxyl group?
Hydrogen and oxygen atom (alcohol)
What comprises a carbonyl group?
Carbon and oxygen double bonded
- aldehyde at the end
- ketone in the middle
What comprises a carboxyl group?
Carbon double bonded to oxygen and a hydroxyl group
- carboxylic acid
What comprises an amino group?
Nitrogen with 2 hydrogen atoms
- amines (tendency to remoce Hydrogen atoms, a base)
Organic molecules that are large/complex with hundreds or thousands of atoms covalently bonded.
4) Nucleic Acids
Large compounds constructed by covalently bonding many small simple building blocks into long chains
Single building blocks of polymers. Key to diversity due to variation in sequence and essentially universal.
What is life's simple molecular logic?
Small molecules common to all organisms arranged into macromolecules connected together and vary from species to species/individual to individual
Putting monomers together by removing water. Condensation reaction.
Breaking apart by addition of water.
What are 3 examples of disaccharides?
1) Sucrose (glucose and fructose)
2) Maltose (2 glucose)
C12H22O11 (water removed)
How are monosaccharides connected?
Polymers with many hundreds/thousands of monosaccharides
Storage molecule for plant tissue; glucose molecules with helical strands
Storage molecule for animals. Similar to starch but more branched. Stored in liver and muscles to convert glucose.
Most complex carbohydrate and most abundant. Plant fiber used for support and for cell walls. Unbranched rod. Cannot be digested by humans but it will cleanse the system.
Water loving and soluble
smallest unit of sugar molecules and the building block for complex polysaccharides
Sugar molecules consisting of two monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis
An organic molecule consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non polar covalent bonds and therefore mostly hydrophobic (no hydrolysis)
Function: storage and insulation
Monomer: fatty acids and glycerol
A large lipid made from a glycerol and 3 fatty acids. Acts as energy storage and insulation.
A fat which contains a molecule of glycerol linked to three molecules of fatty acids.
Hydrocarbon chains that lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and have one or more double covalent bonds.
Hydrocarbon chains that contain the maximum number of hydrogen and has no double covalent bonds
Major component of cell membrane, structurally similar to fat but with a phosphorus and 2 fatty acids
- protects body surfaces
- regulates cellular and bodily functions
1 fatty acid linked to glycerol
- waterproof coating (hydrophobic)
Carbon skeleton bend to form 4 rings
Carboxyl group with hydrocarbon chain of 15 carbons
Alcohol with 3 carbons each with own hydroxyl group
A biological macromolecule made of 1+ polypeptides
Monomer: amino acids
Function: building material (corresponds with structure)
What are the 7 classes of proteins?
Structural proteins are for...
Building material and what makes living things.
Contractile proteins are for...
Fibers that contract and relax for movement (muscles)
Storage proteins for...
Stores proteins for later use
Defensive proteins for...
Transport proteins for...
Picks up and delivers substances
Signal proteins for...
Coordinate and communicate cell reactions
Enzyme proteins for...
Catalyzes chemical reactions and effective in small quantities.
Why are proteins the most diverse in structure and function?
Arrangement of amino acids.
Organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group
- linked by dehydration synthesis
Long chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
Changing of protein structure to cause it to lose function
- heat, pH, salt concentration
4 types of protein structures?
1) Primary structure
2) Secondary Structure
3) Tertiary Structure
4) Quaternary Structure
Amino acid sequence
Coiling and folding of polypeptide chains due to hydrogen bonding
Overall shape of the polypeptide in 3-D (globular or fibular)
Relationship among multiple polypeptides of a protein
Spiral shape resulting from the coiling of a polypeptide in a protein's secondary structure
Folded arrangement of a polypeptide
Master molecule of life. The chemical link between generations that transfers genetic material. Primary control over protein synthesis that contains code for amino acid sequence and builds protein molecules.
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
- genetic material that organisms inherit from parents
- double stranded helix molecule of deoxyribose sugar and bases
- in nucleus
How can one molecule (DNA) dominate the scheme of life?
What are the 2 types of nucleic acids?
Building block of nucleic acids
- Phosphate group
- 5 carbon sugar
- Nitrogen base
What are the 5 types of nitrogen bases?
4) Thymine (DNA) and Uracil (RNA)
A discrete unit of hereditary info consisting of specific nucleotide sequence in DNA -> functions
- controls life of cell/organism
Ribose Nucleic Acid
- type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers
- single stranded in the nucleus and cytoplasm
- 3 kinds (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)