Ch.3 Molecules of Cells Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Ch.3 Molecules of Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.3 Molecules of Cells Deck (65):
1

Carbohydrates

CH2O carbon water consisting of sugar molecules
Function: Quick Energy
Monomer: monosaccharides

2

What are some monomers of carbohydrates?

Glucose, fructose, galactose
All have C6H12O6

3

Organic compounds

Important for life. A chemical compound containing carbon that is synthesized by cells. Carbon atoms will combine with H, O, N, and P. These carbons will allow for structure as it has 4 electrons to make 4 covalent bonds.
- macromolecule, polymer

4

Hydrocarbons

Chemical compound composed of hydrogen and carbon. Carbons can be in straight chains, branched, and ring like.

5

Isomers

Have the same molecular formula but different structure so different properties

6

Functional Groups

Groups of atoms that participate in chemical reactions. Determines the unique properties.
- all polar because oxygen/nitrogen has strong pull
- polar so therefore hydrophilic (needed for water based life)

7

What are the 4 types of functional group?

1) Hydroxyl
2) Carbonyl
3) Carboxyl
4) Amino

8

What comprises a hydroxyl group?

Hydrogen and oxygen atom (alcohol)

9

What comprises a carbonyl group?

Carbon and oxygen double bonded
- aldehyde at the end
- ketone in the middle

10

What comprises a carboxyl group?

Carbon double bonded to oxygen and a hydroxyl group
- carboxylic acid

11

What comprises an amino group?

Nitrogen with 2 hydrogen atoms
- amines (tendency to remoce Hydrogen atoms, a base)

12

Macromolecules

Organic molecules that are large/complex with hundreds or thousands of atoms covalently bonded.
1) Carbohydrates
2) Lipids
3) Proteins
4) Nucleic Acids

13

Polymers

Large compounds constructed by covalently bonding many small simple building blocks into long chains

14

Monomers

Single building blocks of polymers. Key to diversity due to variation in sequence and essentially universal.

15

What is life's simple molecular logic?

Small molecules common to all organisms arranged into macromolecules connected together and vary from species to species/individual to individual

16

Dehydration Synthesis

Putting monomers together by removing water. Condensation reaction.

17

Hydrolysis

Breaking apart by addition of water.

18

What are 3 examples of disaccharides?

1) Sucrose (glucose and fructose)
2) Maltose (2 glucose)
3) Lactose
C12H22O11 (water removed)

19

How are monosaccharides connected?

Dehydrated synthesis

20

Polysaccharides

Polymers with many hundreds/thousands of monosaccharides
1) Starch
2) Glycogen
3) Cellulose

21

Starch

Storage molecule for plant tissue; glucose molecules with helical strands

22

Glycogen

Storage molecule for animals. Similar to starch but more branched. Stored in liver and muscles to convert glucose.

23

Cellulose

Most complex carbohydrate and most abundant. Plant fiber used for support and for cell walls. Unbranched rod. Cannot be digested by humans but it will cleanse the system.

24

Hydrophilic

Water loving and soluble

25

Monosaccharides

smallest unit of sugar molecules and the building block for complex polysaccharides

26

Disaccharide

Sugar molecules consisting of two monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis

27

Lipids

CHO
An organic molecule consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non polar covalent bonds and therefore mostly hydrophobic (no hydrolysis)
Function: storage and insulation
Monomer: fatty acids and glycerol

28

Fat

A large lipid made from a glycerol and 3 fatty acids. Acts as energy storage and insulation.

29

Triglyceride

A fat which contains a molecule of glycerol linked to three molecules of fatty acids.

30

Unsaturated fats

Hydrocarbon chains that lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and have one or more double covalent bonds.

31

Saturated fats

Hydrocarbon chains that contain the maximum number of hydrogen and has no double covalent bonds

32

Phospholipid

Major component of cell membrane, structurally similar to fat but with a phosphorus and 2 fatty acids
- protects body surfaces
- regulates cellular and bodily functions

33

Waxes

1 fatty acid linked to glycerol
- waterproof coating (hydrophobic)

34

Steroids

Carbon skeleton bend to form 4 rings

35

Fatty Acid

Carboxyl group with hydrocarbon chain of 15 carbons

36

Glycerol

Alcohol with 3 carbons each with own hydroxyl group

37

Protein

CHON (S)
A biological macromolecule made of 1+ polypeptides
Monomer: amino acids
Function: building material (corresponds with structure)

38

What are the 7 classes of proteins?

1) Structural
2) Contractile
3) Storage
4) Defensive
5) Transport
6) Signal
7) Enzymes

39

Structural proteins are for...

Building material and what makes living things.

40

Contractile proteins are for...

Fibers that contract and relax for movement (muscles)

41

Storage proteins for...

Stores proteins for later use

42

Defensive proteins for...

Fights infections

43

Transport proteins for...

Picks up and delivers substances
- hemoglobin

44

Signal proteins for...

Coordinate and communicate cell reactions

45

Enzyme proteins for...

Catalyzes chemical reactions and effective in small quantities.

46

Why are proteins the most diverse in structure and function?

Arrangement of amino acids.

47

Amino Acids

Organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group
- linked by dehydration synthesis

48

Polypeptide

Long chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.

49

Denaturation

Changing of protein structure to cause it to lose function
- heat, pH, salt concentration

50

4 types of protein structures?

1) Primary structure
2) Secondary Structure
3) Tertiary Structure
4) Quaternary Structure

51

Primary Structure

Amino acid sequence

52

Secondary Structure

Coiling and folding of polypeptide chains due to hydrogen bonding

53

Tertiary Structure

Overall shape of the polypeptide in 3-D (globular or fibular)

54

Quaternary Structure

Relationship among multiple polypeptides of a protein

55

Alpha Helix

Spiral shape resulting from the coiling of a polypeptide in a protein's secondary structure

56

Pleated Sheet

Folded arrangement of a polypeptide

57

Nucleic Acids

CHONP
Master molecule of life. The chemical link between generations that transfers genetic material. Primary control over protein synthesis that contains code for amino acid sequence and builds protein molecules.
Monomer: nucleotides

58

DNA

Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
- genetic material that organisms inherit from parents
- double stranded helix molecule of deoxyribose sugar and bases
- in nucleus

59

How can one molecule (DNA) dominate the scheme of life?

Structure

60

What are the 2 types of nucleic acids?

1) DNA
2) RNA

61

Nucleotides

Building block of nucleic acids
- Phosphate group
- 5 carbon sugar
- Nitrogen base

62

What are the 5 types of nitrogen bases?

1) Adenine
2) Guanine
3) Cytosine
4) Thymine (DNA) and Uracil (RNA)

63

Genes

A discrete unit of hereditary info consisting of specific nucleotide sequence in DNA -> functions
- controls life of cell/organism

64

RNA

Ribose Nucleic Acid
- type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers
- single stranded in the nucleus and cytoplasm
- 3 kinds (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)

65

Who discovered the code of life? Double Helix?

J. Watson and F. Crick. With the help of M. Wilkens and R. Franklin