Flashcards in Ch. 34 Biosphere Deck (44):
The scientific study of how organisms interact with their environments
1) Organism Level
2) Population Level
3) Community Level
4) Ecosystem Level
1) How an organism meets the challenges of it's environment.
2) The interbreeding group of individuals belonging to the same species in a particular area.
3) All of the organisms (population of different species) that inhabit a particular area.
4) All life in the area and the non-living factors
Non living factors
1) Solar Energy
Organisms making up a community of species in an area
The global ecosystem (portion that is alive)
Environmental situations in which organisms live
Powers nearly all surface terrestrial and shallow water ecosystems
Essential for all life.
Affects the metabolism and survival rate.
Can blow nutrients to organisms, affect patchiness, and increase an organism's rate of water loss by evaporation
An organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
How does the presence of a species come about in an area?
1) Species evolves in that location.
2) Species dispersed to the location and survive there.
How does natural selection shape the adaptations of an organism so it may function in its environment?
Organisms can usually only tolerate environment fluctuations it is adapted to; natural selection may then limit distribution of organisms.
How does Earth itself affect temperature and seasons?
Earth has an uneven curvature so it has an uneven distribution of solar energy; the equator recieves the most heat due to direct hit. This affects air and water currents.
Seasons are attributed to the planet being on a tilt of its axis as it orbits.
An area of calm or very light winds near the equator caused by warm air.
When some dry air spreads back to the equator after air masses have lost moisture, cooled, and descended to latitude 30 degrees. Common to the tropics.
Latitude between 23.5 North and 23.5 South.
Latitude between tropic and the Arctic/Antarctic Circle
Major of global air movements. Results from the combined effects of rising/falling air masses and Earth's rotation.
In temperature zones (slow moving) wind will blow west to east.
Riverlike flow patterns in the ocean. Created by prevailing winds, planet rotation, uneven heating, and continents. Affects regional climates such that warm currents have warm climate.
What are the major biological communities?
Rainforests and deserts. (Refer to notes as to why. See diagram.)
Area where fresh water merges with seawater. Among the most productive environments.
Shallow zone where waters of an estuary/ocean meet land.
- experiences tides and tidepools
- a type of wetland (soil saturated by water, water factors affect organisms)
Ecosystem between aquatic and terrestrial
- have soil saturated by water (permanent/periodic)
- flow of water, frequency, duration, depth, season affect organisms type
- supports communities dominated by highly motile animals
- gets some light
Algae and photosynthetic bacteria that drifts passively in aquatic environments
Animals that drift in aquatic environments because can't resist current/can't swim
- eats phytoplankton and then eaten by others
- organisms depend on depth and light penetration
- gets some light
Submerged parts of the continents
Region of aquatic ecosystem where light penetrates and photosynthesis occurs
Aphotic ZoneRegion of aquatic ecosystem below photic zone where light doesn't penetrate enough for photosynthesis to occur
Name the 2 types of aquatic ecosystems. Similarities and differences.
1) Seawater 2) Freshwater
Similarities: photic and aphotic zones w/ phytoplankton
Differences: Salinity (scarcity of dissolved ions in fresh water)
A terrestrial ecosystem, largely determined by climate, usually classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by organisms adapted to the particular environment
9 types of terrestrial biomes
1) Tropical Forest
4) Polar + High Mountain Ice
6) Temperate Grassland
7) Temperate Deciduous Forest
8) Coniferous Forest
9) Tundra (arctic/alpine)
Tropical Forest characteristics?
1) Thorn Forest
- common in dry equatorial land (Africa, India)
- thorny shrubs, trees, nonwoody plants that retain water
- rainfall is rare (long dry seasons)
2) Deciduous Forest
- Tropical areas w/ distinct wet/dry seasons (Africa, S. Asia)
- plants drop leaves seasonally
3) Rain Forest
- Humid equatorial areas (Indonesia + Amazon River)
- rainfall abundant, reduced rain seasonally but not long
- lots of trees
- sensitive to clearing, burning, abandoning, and mining which results in deforestation
- Hard to recover as soil has poor nutrients
Biome dominated by grasses and scattered trees
- Central S. America/Africa, Australia, N. America
- Fires, human activity, grazing animals prevent invasion of trees (stay grass)
Organisms adapted to scarce rainfall and rapid evaporation
- centered at 30 degrees North and South latitudes
- environmental issue: desertification (conversion of biomes to desert)
- cycles of growth and reproduction (seeds dormant)
- animals active at night and adapted to save water
Dominated by spiny evergreen shrubs adapted to periodic drought/fires
- rainy winters and long hot dry summers
- cold ocean currents circulate offshore
- shoot tips of plants don't burn to regenerate faster due to nutrients.
Similar to tropical savannas but mostly treeless
- regions w/ relatively cold winters
- seasonal droughts, fires, grazing to prevent tree growth
- glacial deposits = nutrients
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Latitudes of 30 to 50 degrees w/ sufficient moisture to support large trees
- temp varies and species varies
- rich soil
Principle trees are cone bearers
-- fire essential to prevent deciduous trees from replacing conifers
- Taiga (northern boreal coniferous forest which externs across N. American and Eurasia to southern border of Arctic tundra)
- harsh winters, short summers
- soil is thin and acidic due to low temp and waxy needles
Biome at the northernmost limits of plant growth and at high altitudes, characterized by dwarf woody shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens