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Flashcards in ch 2 Deck (63):
1

phenotypes

directly observable traits

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genotypes

the genetic information that determines our species and influences, 98-99 same as chimps, 99.1 humans are Identical

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genetic code

chromosomes made up of chemical substance, DNA

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gene

segment of dan along length of the chromosome

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gametes

sex cells, sperm and ovum, genetic variability, meiosis

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chromosomes

rodlike structure within the cells that store and transmit genetic information

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zygote

formed when sperm and ovum unite

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autosomes

22 matching pairs of chromosomes

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sex chromosomes

23rd pair of chromosomes

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fraternal

dizygotic, two ova fertilized

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identical

monozygotic, single zygote splits

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alleles

two forms of same gene, located at same place on both chromosomes in a pair, one from each parent, homo and heterozygous

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dominant-recessive

only the dominant allele affects children's phenotype

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recessive allele

responsible for many serious diseases

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incomplete dominance

both alleles expressed, combined or intermediate traits possible

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sickle cell anemia

african descent, RBCs distorted and can't pass through vessels, Incomplete dominance

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PKU

body's failure to breakdown amino acid, accumulates in body and affects nervous system, tested at birth- special diet

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tay-sachs disease

eastern european descent, gene fails to produce fatty breakdown enzyme in nervous system

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X-linked inheritance

color blindness, fragile x, hemophilia, if affected X meets Y always going to be a problem

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ovum

one produced by each meiosis, female born with all ovaries

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sperm

4 produced by each meiosis, continually produced lifelong

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X

large, has more genetic material, retain biological superiority

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Y

smaller, speedier, greater infection risk, more fragile at conception to environmental elements and heredity disease and defect

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down syndrome

extra 21st chromosome, facial features, small hands, large tongue, mental retardations, heart defects, leukemia risk, risk increases with moms age (1/40, 45+) autosome abnormality

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klinefelter syndrome

male has XXY , small testicles, less body hair, language impairment, possible sterility (XYY larger size)

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turner syndrome

XO lack second chromosome, short stature, poorly developed secondary sex ch. , sterility

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genetic counseling

assess chances of heredity disorders, choose best course of action in view of risks and family goals for when couple has had difficulties bearing children or genetic problems exist, woman over 35

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prenatal DX methods

medical procedures that permit detection of development problems before birth

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amniocentesis

most widely used technique, hollow needle through ab wall. small miscarriage risk, 14 wks in, 1-2 wks for results

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chorionic villus sampling

procedure can be used early in pregnancy, thing tube through vagina into uterus

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fetoscopy

small camera to inspect defects, blood sample for hemophilia, sickle cell, neural issues to be drawn, 15-18 wks

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ultrasound

used to guide amnio, fetoscopy, CVS. can be can be combined with MRI. can asses age of fetus, used over 5 times can give low birth weight

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maternal blood analysis

by second month of pregnancy can isolate blood cells from moms blood

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ultrafast MRI

no adverse effects, fast to counteract fetal movements

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preimplantation genetic DX

after in vitro fertilization before implanted uses 1 out of 10 cells

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bidirectional influences

behaviors of family members affect the behaviors of others

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microsystem

immediate, close relationships

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macrosystem

broad social climate of society

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coparenting

mutually supporting each others parenting behaviors

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internalizing difficulties

feeling worried and fearful

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externalizing difficulties

being angry and aggressive

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socioeconomic status

index combining years of education, prestige and degree of skills needed for ones job and income

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subculture

group of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of larger group. cooperative family structures help protect members from harmful effects of poverty

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extended family households

3 or more generations, more common in minorities, reduce poverty stress, creates strong family bonds, transmit culture, provide assistance to generations

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collectivist society

people define themselves as part of group and value group goals over individual ones

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individualistic society

people think of selves as separate entities and are concerned with personal needs

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public policies

laws and governments programs designed to improve current conditions

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behavioral genetics

field trying to define contributions of nature and nurture in human traits and abilities

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gene-environment interactions

because of genetic makeup individuals differ in responsiveness to qualities of the environment. people have unique genetically influenced runs to particular environments

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heritability estimate

measures extent to which individual diff in complex traits in specific populations is due to genetics

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kinship studies

compare traits of family members

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niche-picking

tendency to choose environments that complement our heredity

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gene environment correlation

genes influence environments to which we were exposed

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epigenesis

development resulting from ongoing bidirectional exchanges between heredity and environment

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Development due to FAMILY +

teaches language, morals, social skills. source of info and assistance. good comm = cooperation. grandparents help

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Development due to FAMILY -

isolation from family causes developmental issues. harsh comm = resistance. neg third party relationships - internal or external difficulties

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Development due to LOW SES

marry and have children earlier, more children, external Ch obedience, cleanliness, politeness emphasized. Commands and physical punishment. feel powerlessness in relationships beyond home

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Development due to HIGH SES

emphasize psych traits happiness, curiosity, self direction, social maturity. more warm comm and verbal praise. preschoolers have more interaction with

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affluence

high levels of anxiety and depression. risk of EtOH and drug use. excessive achievement demands lack of attention from parents

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poverty

46 mil, 15%, parents under 25/single mom, older single women. children suffer from developmental delays, chronic emotional stress, 30% don't go to school

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cultural values and practices

shape daily life within and outside family

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Development due to Rural environment

little culture, teens do more household work, involved in social organizations, work with adults

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Development due to Urban environment

teens take care of selves, fast pace of life, cultural opportunities, work w/o direct mentoring