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Flashcards in Test 1 Review Deck (164):
1

according to the lifespan perspective, __ is supreme in its impact on the life course.

no single age period

2

max, age 65, learned to play the piano at a local senior center. Max demonstrates that

development is plastic at all ages

3

G. Stanley Hall and his, Arnold Gesell,

launched the normative approach.

4

In contrast to Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson

pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each culture's life situation

5

according to ____ theory, children learn primarily through modeling

social learning

6

according to jean piaget's cognitive - development theory,

children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world

7

the information-processing approach views the mind as a

symbol-manipulating system through which information flows

8

evolutionary developmental psychology

seeks to understand the adaptive value of species wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as those competencies change with age

9

lev Vygotsky's theory focuses on

how culture is transmitted to the next generation

10

ecological systems theory views the person as

developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment

11

according to ecological systems theory, interaction between marina and her child occur in the

microsystem

12

bronfenbrenner's macrosystem consists of

cultural values, laws, customs, and resources

13

in a longitudinal study, __ effects occur when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural influences

cohort

14

a gamete

contains 23 chromosomes

15

when sperm and ovum unite at conception, a ___ results.

zygote

16

of matching pairs of chromosomes, 22 of 23 are called _____ and one pair consists of ____ chromosomes.

autosomes; sex

17

dizygotic twins

are no more alike than ordinary siblings

18

eric is more likely than his sister to be negatively affected by X-linked disorders because

the Y chromosome lacks many corresponding genes to override those carried on the X chromosome

19

the risk of bearing a child with down syndrome rises dramatically with

maternal age

20

the communication process of ___ can help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals.

genetic counseling

21

except for ___ , prenatal diagnosis should not be used routinely because these methods have some chance of injuring the developing organism

maternal blood analysis

22

Higher-SES parents tend to emphasize the importance of ___ for their children, whereas lower-SES parents tend to emphasize ___

psychological traits; external characteristics

23

most homeless families consist of

women with children under age 5

24

for both affluent and low-SES youths, what simple routine is associated with a reduction in adjustment difficulties?

eating dinner with parents

25

in collectivist societies, people

define themselves as part of a group

26

the placenta

delivers food and oxygen to the developing organism

27

at the beginning of the embryonic period, the ___ system develops fastest.

nervous

28

viability occurs between ___ weeks.

22-26

29

which of the following statements about fetal alcohol syndrome is true?

it is distinguished by slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities, and brain injury.

30

taking a ____ supplement around the time of conception greatly reduces by more than 70 percent abnormalities of the neural tube.

folic acid

31

when the inherited blood types of mother and fetus differ, the most common cause of difficulties is

Rh factor incompatibility

32

ursula is in the second stage of labor. She can expect ___ during this stage.

her baby is born

33

During the third stage of labor,

the placenta is delivered

34

which of the following statements about the infant's production of stress hormones during childbirth is true ?

stress hormones prepare the baby to breathe effectively by causing the lungs to absorb any remaining fluid and by expanding the bronchial tubes.

35

andrew received a combined Apgar score of 5. This means andrew

needs assistance in establishing breathing the other vital signs

36

___ is the best available predictor of infant survival and healthy development.

birth weight

37

tiffany is a small-for-date baby. This means she

was born below her expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy

38

___ helps stimulate early physical growth and is vital for emotional development as well.

touch

39

vision

is the least developed of a newborn baby's senses

40

T. Berry Brazelton's Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale evaluates

the newborn's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, and responsiveness to stimulation.

41

which of the following statements is consistent with the proximodistal trend of body growth?

during childhood, the arms and legs grow somewhat ahead of the hands and feet

42

the specialization of two hemispheres of the brain is known as

lateralization

43

which of the following statements about brain plasticity is true?

many areas of highly plastic cerebral cortex are not yet committed to specific functions

44

breast feeding for just few weeks

offers some protection against respiratory and intestinal infections

45

at first, baby mario was easily awakened every night by a barking dog in his neighborhood. Several weeks later, Mario's sleep is not bothered by the dog's barks. This is an example of

habituation

46

a baby who first habituates to a visual pattern and then recovers to a new one appears to

perceive the second pattern as new and different from the first pattern

47

____ fire identically when a primate hears or sees an action and when it carries out that action on its own.

mirror neurons

48

at first, babies are sensitive to virtually all speech sounds, but around 6 months, they

narrow their focus, limiting distinctions to their language they hear and will soon learn

49

which of the following statements about speech stream patterns is true?

When presented with controlled sequences of nonsense syllables, babies listen for statistical regularities.

50

which of the following pictures is newborn Alex most likely to prefer to look at?

a black and white checkerboard with a few large squares

51

according to piaget, specific psychological structures called ___ are organized ways of making sense of experience.

schemes

52

____ involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment

adaptation

53

two-year-old laura dropped a block into her toy box. She then dropped a cup, a car, and a doll into the box, throwing some objects gently, while using more force with others. Laura's modification of her dropping scheme is an example of

accommodation

54

In piaget's theory, when children are in a state of disequilibrium,

cognitive change is rapid

55

baby hannah is shown a stuffed sheep, and then it is hidden under a blanket. Which of the following statements is true?

hannah must coordinate two schemes to retrieve the object: "pushing" aside the blanket and "grasping"the stuffed sheep.

56

Baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby luigi has begun to master

object permanence

57

in substage 6 of the sensorimotor period, the ability to create mental representations enables toddlers to ____ and ___.

engage in deferred imitation: use make-believe play

58

research suggests that infants

have basic numeric knowledge

59

in the information-processing system, information first enters

the sensory register

60

___ controls attention, supresses impulses, coordinates information in working memory, and flexibly directs and monitors thought and behavior.

executive function

61

Recall is more challenging than recognition because it

involves remembering something that is not present

62

according to Vygotsky, ___ is a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners.

the zone of proximal development

63

two-year-old Carmen is trying to fit pieces into a wooden puzzle form. Her father helps Carmen turn the pieces so they fit snuggly in place. As Carmen's skill improves, her father steps back, letting her try on her own. This example best illustrates the concept of

scaffolding

64

nativist Noam Chomsky believed that

the rules of sentence organization are too complex to be directly taught to ro discovered by even cognitively sophisticated young child

65

Chomsky's "LAD" is a(n)

innate system that enables children to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough words.

66

sixteen-month-old Grayson calls all dogs "dog", but only uses the word "puppy" to refer to his family's dog. This is an example of

underextension

67

according to Erikson, healthy outcome during infancy depends on the

quality of caregiving.

68

According to Erikson's theory, a mistrustful baby

protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her.

69

in Erikson's theory, the conflict of toddlerhood, ___ , is resolved favorably when parents provide suitable guidance and reasonable choices.

autonomy versus shame and doubt

70

twenty-two-year-old daniel is overly dependent on his girlfriend, Missy. Daniel continually doubts his ability to meet new challenges. Daniel may not have fully mastered the tasks of ___ and ___ during infancy and childhood.

trust ; autonomy

71

Which of the following are all basic emotions?

happiness, anger and disgust

72

angry reactions ___ with age.

increase in both frequency and intensity

73

which of the following are self-conscious emotions?

guilt, shame and pride

74

Thomas became angry after a playmate took his truck away. How can Thomas's father help him regulate his emotion?

Label Thomas's feelings, encourage him to describe his internal state, and offer a comforting hug.

75

Josh is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely. in thomas and Chess's research, Josh would be classified as a ___ child

difficult

76

___ involving creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning.

goodness of fit

77

the ___ theory of attachment recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival.

ethological

78

in the strange situation, olivia seems unresponsive to her mother when she is present. When her mother leaves, Olivia is not distressed. She reacts to the stinger in much the same way. Olivia is demonstrating characteristics of ____ attachment.

avoidant

79

In the strange situation, Philip seeks closeness to his mother and fails to explore. When his mother leaves, Philip is distressed, and on her return he hits her. Philip is displaying characteristics of __- attachment.

resistant

80

In the strange situation, sara approaches her parent during reunion with flat, depressed emotion. Sara looks away while her parent is holding her and displays a dazed facial expression. Sara is demonstrating characteristics of ___ attachment.

disorganized / disoriented

81

an inner-brain structure called the ___ plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that helps us find our way.

hippocampus

82

which of the following is one reason the US lags behind denmark, norway, GB in immunizations?

many US children do not have access to the health care system they need.

83

according to piaget, the most obvious change as children move away from the sensorimotor to the pre operational stage is an increase in__

representational or symbolic activity

84

five year old chaim is participating in piaget's three mountains problem. When chaim is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll's perspective, he will most likely select the __

picture that shows his own point of view

85

three year old Abah refuses to leave his stuffed elephant at home. He explains, "She feels scared when she is alone" Abah is using

animistic thinking

86

Accoridng to Vygotksy, learning takes place __-

within the zone of proximal development

87

When building a block tower with his young daughter, samuel adjusts the support offered to his daughter to fit her current level of performance. Samuel is engaging in

scaffolding

88

dr. frolicker shows a group of 4-year olds a set of 10 items on a tray. She then mixes them up with some unfamiliar items, and asks the children to point to the ones in the original set. Dr Frolicker is testing

recognition memory

89

three year old J.T. understands that 3 is more than 2, and 2 is more than 1. JT has a grasp of

ordinality

90

mastery of ___ increases the efficiency of children's counting.

cardinality

91

two-year old Aidan says "we saw two deers" Aidan is demonstrating

overregularization

92

expansions

elaborate on children's speech, increasing its complexity

93

according to Erikson, the psychological conflict of the preschool years is

initiative versus guilt

94

according to erikson, preschoolers exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks break down when they

are threatened criticized and punished excessively by adults

95

candace and christian sit side by side playing with their dolls. They do not talk or try to influence each other. They are engaging in ___ play

parallel

96

most theories of moral development agree that at first, a child's morality is __

externally controlled by adults

97

current research indicates that freud was correct that

guilt is an important motivator of moral action

98

empathy-based guilt reactions

are associated with engaging in future prosocial behavior

99

macy spreads a rumor about tya after tea is cast as the lead in the school play, the role macy desired. This is an example of ___ agression

reactive

100

Shelby tells her classmates not to play with sophia because "she lies" this is an example of ___ aggression.

relational

101

gender schema theory

explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender -role development

102

the __ child rearing style is the most successful approach

authoritative

103

authoritarian parents

rarely listen to the child's point of view

104

sophia's parents are warm but overindulgent and inattentive. they make few demands for maturity. The permit sophia to make many decisions before she is ready. Sophia's parents have a ___ style of child rearing.

uninvolved

105

bobby is anxious, unhappy and has low self esteem. When frustrated, bobby tends to react with hostility. His parents rare most likely to fit which of the following child-rearing styles?

authoritarian

106

which of the following statements about the permissive child-rearing style is true?

many permissive parents lack confidence in their ability to influence their child's behavior

107

research on child maltreatment shows that

maltreating parents often lack "lifelines" to others and have no one to turn to in stressful times

108

during a conservation-of-water experiment, Emme can focus on several aspects of the problem and relate them, rather than centering on just one aspect. Therefore, emme is capable of

decentration

109

jamal is able to think through a series of steps and then mentally return to the starting point. Therefore, jamal is capable of

reversibility

110

seven year old paolo can efficiently arrange a series of sticks of different lengths from shortest to longest. paolo has developed an ability called

seriation

111

kim less is able to mentally represent her neighborhood and describe it to others. kim less's representation is known as a

cognitive map

112

ADHD

is usually a lifelong disorder

113

when taylor was given a list of ingredients to memorize, she immediately repeated the list to herself over and over again. Which strategy did she use?

rehearsal

114

when mike had to learn the state capitals he grouped the states by region to assist his memory. Which strategy did he use?

organization

115

to help herself remember that she needed cat food and gloves at the store, cheryl imagined a cat wearing cloves. Which memory strategy did cheryl use?

elaboration

116

9 year old brett views his mind as an active, constructive agent that selects and transforms information. Brett's awareness of thought is known as

metacognition

117

educators who advocate a whole-language approach argue that

from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language

118

educators who advocate a phonics approach argue that

children should learn the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds before being given complex reading material

119

many studies show that

combining phonics which whole language is the best approach for teaching beginning reading

120

with regard to teaching mathematics, most experts agree that

a blend of both drill in computing and number sense or understanding is most beneficial

121

in sternberg's triarchic theory, intelligent behavior involves balancing ___ intelligences

analytical creative and practical

122

according to stern berg's triarchic theory, applying strategies and engaging in self-regulation are examples of ___ intelligence

analytical

123

gardner believes that

each intelligence has a unique biological basis and a distinct course of development

124

which of the following statements is supported by research on group differences in IQ?

difference in SES do not fully explain the IQ gap between black and white american children

125

which of the following statements about inclusion is true?

children with special needs often do best when they receive instruct non a resource room for part of the day and in the regular classroom for the remainder

126

rochelle is taking a test in which she asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a straw. this is a test of

divergent thinking

127

which of the following statements about gifted children is true?

many gifted children are socially isolated

128

jacob is a 6th grader who entered the middle school academic bowl. according to erikson, by entering the competition, jacob shows

industriousness

129

children who develop __ attribute their failures, not their successes, to abilities

learned helplessness

130

children who believe that people's personality traits are ___ rather than __ often judge others as either good ro bad

fixed , changeable

131

children and adults with ___ are more likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudices

very high self esteem

132

principal allen wants to reduce prejudice at his middle school. which of the following interventions should he use?

assign children to cooperative learning groups with peers of diverse backgrounds

133

___ children are at the highest risk for poor school performance, substance abuse and antisocial behavior in adolescence and delinquency with criminality in early adulthood

rejected

134

michaela performs well in school and communicates with her peers in sensitive, friendly an cooperative ways. She is a ___ child.

popular - prosocial

135

harrison is a popular - antisocial child. Which of the following characteristics is he likely to display ?

he is athletically skilled but is poor student who causes trouble and defies adult authority

136

skye, a rejected-withdrawn child, is most likely

worried about being scorned and attacked

137

children who ___ are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse.

live in homes with a constantly changing cast of characters

138

randy is viewed by both adults and peers as relaxed, independent, and self-confident . Maria is viewed by both groups as physically

randy is an early maturing boy, and maria is a late-maturing girl

139

anorexia nervosa is

a tragic eating disorder in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat

140

which of the following parent-child relationships is the most common among anorexic teenagers?

overprotective and controlling mothers and emotionally distant fathers

141

the most successful treatment for anorexia usually involves

family therapy and medication to reduce anxiety and neurotransmitter imbalances

142

which of the following statements about individuals with bulimia nervosa is true ?

they usually feel depressed and guilty about their abnormal eating habits and desperately want help

143

adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development

no longer require concrete things and events as objects of thought

144

kia, 14, uses hypothetic-deductive reasoning, therefore she probably

makes predictions about variables that might affect an outcome and then deduces logical testable inferences from that hypothesis

145

which of the following college students is the most likely to show improvements in propositional thought?

cali, who took a science course

146

the imaginary audience is the most likely responsible for adolescents'

extreme self-consciousness and sensitivity to public criticism

147

certain that others are observing and thinking about them, teenagers develop an inflated sense of their own importance known as

the personal fable

148

according to erikson, if the psychological conflict of adolescence is resolved negatively, young person experiences

role confusion

149

current theorists agree that for most young people identity development is not traumatic and disturbing but, rather, a process of ___ followed by ___ .

exploration , commitment

150

identity - foreclosed individuals

have committed themselves to values and goals without exploring alternatives

151

when asked about her political beliefs, blair responds, oh i don't know. It doesn't make much difference to me. Blaire is demonstrating identity

diffusion

152

which of the following statements about lawrence kohl berg's well know heinz dilemma is true?

kohlberg emphasized that it is the way an individual reasons about the dilemma, not the content of the response, that determines moral maturity.

153

at kohlberg's ___ level, morality is externally controlled

preconventional

154

at kohlberg's conventional level,

individuals believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and societal order

155

individuals at kohl berg's ___ level move beyond unquestioning support for their own society's rules and laws

postconventional

156

although kohlberg proposes six stages of moral development

few people move beyond stage 4

157

carol gilligan believes that feminine morality

emphasizes and ethic of care that kohl berg's system devalues

158

which of the following statements about the influence of schooling on moral reasoning is true?

college students who report more perspective taking opportunities tend to be advanced in moral reasoning

159

religious involvement

promotes responsible academic and social behavior

160

throughout adolescence, __ is the single most consistent predictor of mental health.

the quality of the parent-child relationship

161

having friends with depressive symptoms

is linked to a rise in teenagers' own depressive symptoms

162

which of the following contributes to the sharp rise in suicide from childhood to adolescence?

belief in the personal fable

163

some studies on zero tolerance policies show that they

heighten school dropout and antisocial behaviors

164

which of the following statements about multi systemic therapy aimed at preventing delinquency is true ?

it leads to improvement in parent - adolescent relationships and school performance