Flashcards in Test 1 Review Deck (164):
according to the lifespan perspective, __ is supreme in its impact on the life course.
no single age period
max, age 65, learned to play the piano at a local senior center. Max demonstrates that
development is plastic at all ages
G. Stanley Hall and his, Arnold Gesell,
launched the normative approach.
In contrast to Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson
pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each culture's life situation
according to ____ theory, children learn primarily through modeling
according to jean piaget's cognitive - development theory,
children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
the information-processing approach views the mind as a
symbol-manipulating system through which information flows
evolutionary developmental psychology
seeks to understand the adaptive value of species wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as those competencies change with age
lev Vygotsky's theory focuses on
how culture is transmitted to the next generation
ecological systems theory views the person as
developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment
according to ecological systems theory, interaction between marina and her child occur in the
bronfenbrenner's macrosystem consists of
cultural values, laws, customs, and resources
in a longitudinal study, __ effects occur when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural influences
contains 23 chromosomes
when sperm and ovum unite at conception, a ___ results.
of matching pairs of chromosomes, 22 of 23 are called _____ and one pair consists of ____ chromosomes.
are no more alike than ordinary siblings
eric is more likely than his sister to be negatively affected by X-linked disorders because
the Y chromosome lacks many corresponding genes to override those carried on the X chromosome
the risk of bearing a child with down syndrome rises dramatically with
the communication process of ___ can help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals.
except for ___ , prenatal diagnosis should not be used routinely because these methods have some chance of injuring the developing organism
maternal blood analysis
Higher-SES parents tend to emphasize the importance of ___ for their children, whereas lower-SES parents tend to emphasize ___
psychological traits; external characteristics
most homeless families consist of
women with children under age 5
for both affluent and low-SES youths, what simple routine is associated with a reduction in adjustment difficulties?
eating dinner with parents
in collectivist societies, people
define themselves as part of a group
delivers food and oxygen to the developing organism
at the beginning of the embryonic period, the ___ system develops fastest.
viability occurs between ___ weeks.
which of the following statements about fetal alcohol syndrome is true?
it is distinguished by slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities, and brain injury.
taking a ____ supplement around the time of conception greatly reduces by more than 70 percent abnormalities of the neural tube.
when the inherited blood types of mother and fetus differ, the most common cause of difficulties is
Rh factor incompatibility
ursula is in the second stage of labor. She can expect ___ during this stage.
her baby is born
During the third stage of labor,
the placenta is delivered
which of the following statements about the infant's production of stress hormones during childbirth is true ?
stress hormones prepare the baby to breathe effectively by causing the lungs to absorb any remaining fluid and by expanding the bronchial tubes.
andrew received a combined Apgar score of 5. This means andrew
needs assistance in establishing breathing the other vital signs
___ is the best available predictor of infant survival and healthy development.
tiffany is a small-for-date baby. This means she
was born below her expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy
___ helps stimulate early physical growth and is vital for emotional development as well.
is the least developed of a newborn baby's senses
T. Berry Brazelton's Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale evaluates
the newborn's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, and responsiveness to stimulation.
which of the following statements is consistent with the proximodistal trend of body growth?
during childhood, the arms and legs grow somewhat ahead of the hands and feet
the specialization of two hemispheres of the brain is known as
which of the following statements about brain plasticity is true?
many areas of highly plastic cerebral cortex are not yet committed to specific functions
breast feeding for just few weeks
offers some protection against respiratory and intestinal infections
at first, baby mario was easily awakened every night by a barking dog in his neighborhood. Several weeks later, Mario's sleep is not bothered by the dog's barks. This is an example of
a baby who first habituates to a visual pattern and then recovers to a new one appears to
perceive the second pattern as new and different from the first pattern
____ fire identically when a primate hears or sees an action and when it carries out that action on its own.
at first, babies are sensitive to virtually all speech sounds, but around 6 months, they
narrow their focus, limiting distinctions to their language they hear and will soon learn
which of the following statements about speech stream patterns is true?
When presented with controlled sequences of nonsense syllables, babies listen for statistical regularities.
which of the following pictures is newborn Alex most likely to prefer to look at?
a black and white checkerboard with a few large squares
according to piaget, specific psychological structures called ___ are organized ways of making sense of experience.
____ involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment
two-year-old laura dropped a block into her toy box. She then dropped a cup, a car, and a doll into the box, throwing some objects gently, while using more force with others. Laura's modification of her dropping scheme is an example of
In piaget's theory, when children are in a state of disequilibrium,
cognitive change is rapid
baby hannah is shown a stuffed sheep, and then it is hidden under a blanket. Which of the following statements is true?
hannah must coordinate two schemes to retrieve the object: "pushing" aside the blanket and "grasping"the stuffed sheep.
Baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby luigi has begun to master
in substage 6 of the sensorimotor period, the ability to create mental representations enables toddlers to ____ and ___.
engage in deferred imitation: use make-believe play
research suggests that infants
have basic numeric knowledge
in the information-processing system, information first enters
the sensory register
___ controls attention, supresses impulses, coordinates information in working memory, and flexibly directs and monitors thought and behavior.
Recall is more challenging than recognition because it
involves remembering something that is not present
according to Vygotsky, ___ is a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners.
the zone of proximal development
two-year-old Carmen is trying to fit pieces into a wooden puzzle form. Her father helps Carmen turn the pieces so they fit snuggly in place. As Carmen's skill improves, her father steps back, letting her try on her own. This example best illustrates the concept of
nativist Noam Chomsky believed that
the rules of sentence organization are too complex to be directly taught to ro discovered by even cognitively sophisticated young child
Chomsky's "LAD" is a(n)
innate system that enables children to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough words.
sixteen-month-old Grayson calls all dogs "dog", but only uses the word "puppy" to refer to his family's dog. This is an example of
according to Erikson, healthy outcome during infancy depends on the
quality of caregiving.
According to Erikson's theory, a mistrustful baby
protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her.
in Erikson's theory, the conflict of toddlerhood, ___ , is resolved favorably when parents provide suitable guidance and reasonable choices.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
twenty-two-year-old daniel is overly dependent on his girlfriend, Missy. Daniel continually doubts his ability to meet new challenges. Daniel may not have fully mastered the tasks of ___ and ___ during infancy and childhood.
trust ; autonomy
Which of the following are all basic emotions?
happiness, anger and disgust
angry reactions ___ with age.
increase in both frequency and intensity
which of the following are self-conscious emotions?
guilt, shame and pride
Thomas became angry after a playmate took his truck away. How can Thomas's father help him regulate his emotion?
Label Thomas's feelings, encourage him to describe his internal state, and offer a comforting hug.
Josh is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely. in thomas and Chess's research, Josh would be classified as a ___ child
___ involving creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning.
goodness of fit
the ___ theory of attachment recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival.
in the strange situation, olivia seems unresponsive to her mother when she is present. When her mother leaves, Olivia is not distressed. She reacts to the stinger in much the same way. Olivia is demonstrating characteristics of ____ attachment.
In the strange situation, Philip seeks closeness to his mother and fails to explore. When his mother leaves, Philip is distressed, and on her return he hits her. Philip is displaying characteristics of __- attachment.
In the strange situation, sara approaches her parent during reunion with flat, depressed emotion. Sara looks away while her parent is holding her and displays a dazed facial expression. Sara is demonstrating characteristics of ___ attachment.
disorganized / disoriented
an inner-brain structure called the ___ plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that helps us find our way.
which of the following is one reason the US lags behind denmark, norway, GB in immunizations?
many US children do not have access to the health care system they need.
according to piaget, the most obvious change as children move away from the sensorimotor to the pre operational stage is an increase in__
representational or symbolic activity
five year old chaim is participating in piaget's three mountains problem. When chaim is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll's perspective, he will most likely select the __
picture that shows his own point of view
three year old Abah refuses to leave his stuffed elephant at home. He explains, "She feels scared when she is alone" Abah is using
Accoridng to Vygotksy, learning takes place __-
within the zone of proximal development
When building a block tower with his young daughter, samuel adjusts the support offered to his daughter to fit her current level of performance. Samuel is engaging in
dr. frolicker shows a group of 4-year olds a set of 10 items on a tray. She then mixes them up with some unfamiliar items, and asks the children to point to the ones in the original set. Dr Frolicker is testing
three year old J.T. understands that 3 is more than 2, and 2 is more than 1. JT has a grasp of
mastery of ___ increases the efficiency of children's counting.
two-year old Aidan says "we saw two deers" Aidan is demonstrating
elaborate on children's speech, increasing its complexity
according to Erikson, the psychological conflict of the preschool years is
initiative versus guilt
according to erikson, preschoolers exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks break down when they
are threatened criticized and punished excessively by adults
candace and christian sit side by side playing with their dolls. They do not talk or try to influence each other. They are engaging in ___ play
most theories of moral development agree that at first, a child's morality is __
externally controlled by adults
current research indicates that freud was correct that
guilt is an important motivator of moral action
empathy-based guilt reactions
are associated with engaging in future prosocial behavior
macy spreads a rumor about tya after tea is cast as the lead in the school play, the role macy desired. This is an example of ___ agression
Shelby tells her classmates not to play with sophia because "she lies" this is an example of ___ aggression.
gender schema theory
explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender -role development
the __ child rearing style is the most successful approach
rarely listen to the child's point of view
sophia's parents are warm but overindulgent and inattentive. they make few demands for maturity. The permit sophia to make many decisions before she is ready. Sophia's parents have a ___ style of child rearing.
bobby is anxious, unhappy and has low self esteem. When frustrated, bobby tends to react with hostility. His parents rare most likely to fit which of the following child-rearing styles?
which of the following statements about the permissive child-rearing style is true?
many permissive parents lack confidence in their ability to influence their child's behavior
research on child maltreatment shows that
maltreating parents often lack "lifelines" to others and have no one to turn to in stressful times
during a conservation-of-water experiment, Emme can focus on several aspects of the problem and relate them, rather than centering on just one aspect. Therefore, emme is capable of
jamal is able to think through a series of steps and then mentally return to the starting point. Therefore, jamal is capable of
seven year old paolo can efficiently arrange a series of sticks of different lengths from shortest to longest. paolo has developed an ability called
kim less is able to mentally represent her neighborhood and describe it to others. kim less's representation is known as a
is usually a lifelong disorder
when taylor was given a list of ingredients to memorize, she immediately repeated the list to herself over and over again. Which strategy did she use?
when mike had to learn the state capitals he grouped the states by region to assist his memory. Which strategy did he use?
to help herself remember that she needed cat food and gloves at the store, cheryl imagined a cat wearing cloves. Which memory strategy did cheryl use?
9 year old brett views his mind as an active, constructive agent that selects and transforms information. Brett's awareness of thought is known as
educators who advocate a whole-language approach argue that
from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language
educators who advocate a phonics approach argue that
children should learn the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds before being given complex reading material
many studies show that
combining phonics which whole language is the best approach for teaching beginning reading
with regard to teaching mathematics, most experts agree that
a blend of both drill in computing and number sense or understanding is most beneficial
in sternberg's triarchic theory, intelligent behavior involves balancing ___ intelligences
analytical creative and practical
according to stern berg's triarchic theory, applying strategies and engaging in self-regulation are examples of ___ intelligence
gardner believes that
each intelligence has a unique biological basis and a distinct course of development
which of the following statements is supported by research on group differences in IQ?
difference in SES do not fully explain the IQ gap between black and white american children
which of the following statements about inclusion is true?
children with special needs often do best when they receive instruct non a resource room for part of the day and in the regular classroom for the remainder
rochelle is taking a test in which she asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a straw. this is a test of
which of the following statements about gifted children is true?
many gifted children are socially isolated
jacob is a 6th grader who entered the middle school academic bowl. according to erikson, by entering the competition, jacob shows
children who develop __ attribute their failures, not their successes, to abilities
children who believe that people's personality traits are ___ rather than __ often judge others as either good ro bad
fixed , changeable
children and adults with ___ are more likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudices
very high self esteem
principal allen wants to reduce prejudice at his middle school. which of the following interventions should he use?
assign children to cooperative learning groups with peers of diverse backgrounds
___ children are at the highest risk for poor school performance, substance abuse and antisocial behavior in adolescence and delinquency with criminality in early adulthood
michaela performs well in school and communicates with her peers in sensitive, friendly an cooperative ways. She is a ___ child.
popular - prosocial
harrison is a popular - antisocial child. Which of the following characteristics is he likely to display ?
he is athletically skilled but is poor student who causes trouble and defies adult authority
skye, a rejected-withdrawn child, is most likely
worried about being scorned and attacked
children who ___ are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse.
live in homes with a constantly changing cast of characters
randy is viewed by both adults and peers as relaxed, independent, and self-confident . Maria is viewed by both groups as physically
randy is an early maturing boy, and maria is a late-maturing girl
anorexia nervosa is
a tragic eating disorder in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat
which of the following parent-child relationships is the most common among anorexic teenagers?
overprotective and controlling mothers and emotionally distant fathers
the most successful treatment for anorexia usually involves
family therapy and medication to reduce anxiety and neurotransmitter imbalances
which of the following statements about individuals with bulimia nervosa is true ?
they usually feel depressed and guilty about their abnormal eating habits and desperately want help
adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development
no longer require concrete things and events as objects of thought
kia, 14, uses hypothetic-deductive reasoning, therefore she probably
makes predictions about variables that might affect an outcome and then deduces logical testable inferences from that hypothesis
which of the following college students is the most likely to show improvements in propositional thought?
cali, who took a science course
the imaginary audience is the most likely responsible for adolescents'
extreme self-consciousness and sensitivity to public criticism
certain that others are observing and thinking about them, teenagers develop an inflated sense of their own importance known as
the personal fable
according to erikson, if the psychological conflict of adolescence is resolved negatively, young person experiences
current theorists agree that for most young people identity development is not traumatic and disturbing but, rather, a process of ___ followed by ___ .
exploration , commitment
identity - foreclosed individuals
have committed themselves to values and goals without exploring alternatives
when asked about her political beliefs, blair responds, oh i don't know. It doesn't make much difference to me. Blaire is demonstrating identity
which of the following statements about lawrence kohl berg's well know heinz dilemma is true?
kohlberg emphasized that it is the way an individual reasons about the dilemma, not the content of the response, that determines moral maturity.
at kohlberg's ___ level, morality is externally controlled
at kohlberg's conventional level,
individuals believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and societal order
individuals at kohl berg's ___ level move beyond unquestioning support for their own society's rules and laws
although kohlberg proposes six stages of moral development
few people move beyond stage 4
carol gilligan believes that feminine morality
emphasizes and ethic of care that kohl berg's system devalues
which of the following statements about the influence of schooling on moral reasoning is true?
college students who report more perspective taking opportunities tend to be advanced in moral reasoning
promotes responsible academic and social behavior
throughout adolescence, __ is the single most consistent predictor of mental health.
the quality of the parent-child relationship
having friends with depressive symptoms
is linked to a rise in teenagers' own depressive symptoms
which of the following contributes to the sharp rise in suicide from childhood to adolescence?
belief in the personal fable
some studies on zero tolerance policies show that they
heighten school dropout and antisocial behaviors