Ch 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 4 Deck (42):
1

cephalocaudal trend

lower part of body grows later than head

2

proximodistal

extremities grow later than head, chest, trunk

3

neuron

specialized cell that receives processes and or transmits information

4

soma

cells body with nucleus

5

glial cells

provide nourishment, insulate, help repair damage, support neural functioning and hold neurons in place, mylenate

6

dendrites

branched fiber that extends outward from the cell body that carries information into the neuron

7

axon

extended fiber that conducts information from the some to the terminal buttons

8

myelin sheath

protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around axon

9

synaptic pruning

neurons seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses allowing unneeded neurons to be used in future

10

mylenation

coating of neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath that improves the efficiency of message transfer

11

terminal buttons

found at end of axon when ap reaches terminal and releases neurotransmitter into synapse

12

neurotransmitter

chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite of a receiver neuron

13

Acetylcholine

involved in memory capabilities, low = althzimers

14

glutamate

memory

15

serotonin

sleep eating mood pain

16

Gamma Amino Butyric Acid

primary inhibitory transmitter, moderated behaviors ranging fro eating to aggression

17

dopamine

movement attention, learning, low = parkinsons

18

endorphins

family of chemicals produced similar to painkillers

19

prefrontal cortex

responsible for thought, consciousness, inhibition of impulses, info integration, memory use, reasoning, planning and problem solving strategies

20

left hemisphere

verbal abilities, positive emotion, sequential, analytic

21

right hemisphere

spatial abilities, neg emotion, holistic integrative processing

22

brain plasticity

more when young, one area damaged others compensate, cerebral cortex is most thats why it learns so well

23

breastfeeding

correct balance of fat and protein, ensure nutritional completeness, helps ensure healthy growth, immune boost, good for jaw and tooth development, ensures digestibility, smooth transition to solid food

24

malnutrition marasmus

diet low in all essential nutrients, lasting physical damage learning and behavioral effects, risks death

25

kwashiorkor

diet low in protein lasting physical damage, learning and behavioral effects

26

food insecurity

hurts physical growth and learning problems

27

infant conditioning

strongest with survival feeding skills, better with regular behavior patterns, continuity and stability led to healthy relationship

28

habituation

gradual reduction in strength of response due to repetitive stimulation, infants are attracted to novel stimulation, with age familiarity preference

29

experience-expectant brain growth

young brains rapidly developing organization, depends on ordinary experiences and opportunities to explore environment, interact with ppl hear language etc

30

experience-dependant brain growth

occur throughout our lives, consisting of additional growth and refinement of established structures due to learning experiences that vary widely across individual and cultures

31

mirror neurons

specialized cells in motor areas of cerebral cortex in primates allowing imitation and fire identically when carrying out action and seeing it

32

perceptual narrowing effect

perceptual sensitivity that becomes increasingly attuned with age to information most often encountered

33

visual cliff

reveals link between crawling and depth perception, mom calls to kid, if they have depth perception then they don't crawl over edge

34

imitation

infants born with ability, mirror neurons explain, powerful way of learning,helps facilitate positive relationship

35

hearing development

4-7 months sense of musical phrasing
6-7 months distinguishes musical tunes based on variation in rhythmic patterns
6-8 months screens out sounds not used in native language
6-12 detects sounds regularities in human speech
7-9 months begins to divide speech into word-ish

36

visual development

rapid eye maturation and visual brain centers

prefer / recognize patterns and human faces, brightness

2 mts - focus
4mts - color vision
6 mts - acuity, scanning, tracking
7mts - depth perception

37

depth perception milestone

3-4 wks sensitive to motor cues
2-3 mts sensitivity to binocular depth cues
5-7 mts sensitivy to pictoral depth cues

38

intermodal perception

integrating many sensory inputs to learn

birth perceives amodal sensory properties
3-4 mts matches faces and voices
4-6 mts perceives, remembers stranger face-voice pairing

39

differentiation theory

infants actively search for unchanging features of the environment

40

statistical learning capacity

perceptual narrowing with heard sounds, find patterns and memorize patterns before they know meanings

41

pattern perception

contrast sensitivity difference in amy of light btwen adjacent regions in pattern, sensitive to the contrast, want more

42

dynamic systems theory of motor development

mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action when motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling environment