ch 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ch 8 Deck (30):
1

initiative v guilt

psychological conflict of preschool year, children have new sense of purposefulness, eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with pets and discover what they can do with adult help, make strides in conscience development

2

self concept

set of attributes abilities attitudes an values that an individual believes defines who he or she is

3

self esteem

judgements we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements

4

prosocial or altruistic behavior

empathy , actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self

5

sympathy

feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight

6

non social activity

unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play

7

parallel play

a child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior

8

associative play

children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior

9

cooperative play

more advance type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal such as acting out a make believe theme

10

induction

type of discipline in which an adult helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others

11

time out

punishment involving removing children from immediate setting until ready to act appropriately

12

moral imperatives

protect peoples rights and welfare - preschoolers can distinguish

13

social conventions

customs determined solely by consensus such as table manners and politeness rituals

14

matter of personal choice

friends, hair style, leisure activities - do not violate right and are up to the individual

15

proactive/instrumental agression

children act to fulfill a need or desire - obtain an object, privilege, space, or social reward such as adult or peer attention - and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal

16

reactive or hostile agression

angry defense response to provocation or a blocked goal and is meant to hurt another person

17

physical aggression

harms others through physical injury - punishing, hitting etc or destroying property

18

verbal aggression

harms others through threats of physical aggression, name calling or hostile teasing

19

relational aggression

damages anthers peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip or friendship manipulation

20

gender typing

refers to any association of objects, activities, roles or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes

21

gender identity

an image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics

22

androgyny

scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics

23

gender constancy

full understanding of the biologically based permanence of their gender including the realization that sex remains the same even if clothing etc activities change

24

gender schema theory

an information processing approach that combines social learning and cognitive development features. it explains how environmental presses and children's cognitions work together to shape gender role development

25

child-rearing styles

combination of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child rearing climate

26

authoritative child-rearing style

most successful, involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques and appropriate autonomy granting

27

authoritarian -child rearing style

low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control and low in autonomy granting

28

psychological control

behaviors that intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expression, individuality and attachments to parents

29

permissive child-rearing style

warm and accepting but uninvolved , parents are either overindulgent or inattentive and thus engage in little control instead of gradually granting autonomy they allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so

30

uninvolved child-rearing style

combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy