ch 7 Flashcards Preview

life span development > ch 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in ch 7 Deck (34):
1

dominant cerebral hemisphere

the greater capacity of one side of the brain, i.e. handedness

2

cerebellum

structure that aids in balance and control of body movement

3

reticular formation

structure in base of brain stem that maintains consciousness and alertness

4

corpus callosum

large bundle of fibers connecting the two hemispheres

5

pituitary gland

located at base of brain playing critical role by releasing two growth stimulating hormones , GH and TSH

6

growth hormone

necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and genitals, from pituitary gland

7

thyroid stimulating hormone

prompts the thyroid clans in the neck to release thyroxine - necessary for brain development and works with GH to have its full impact on body size

8

preoperational stage

spans the years 2-7, the most obvious cane is an extraordinary increase in representational or symbolic activity

9

sociodramatic dramatic play

the make believe with others that is under way by the end of the second year and increases rapidly in complexity during early childhood

10

dual representation

viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol

11

egocentrism

failure to distinguish others symbolic viewpoints from one's own

12

conservation

refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, eve when their outward appearance changes

13

centration

they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting the other important features

14

irreversibility

an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point

15

hierarchical classification

the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences

16

private speech

self directed speech, based on vygotsky, viewed as self guidance, starts as external when young then becomes internal

17

scaffolding

adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the childs current level of performance

18

guided participation

a broader concept than scaffolding, refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants without specifying the precise features of communication

19

memory strategies

deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering

20

episodic memory

memory for everyday experiences

21

scripts

general description of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation

22

metacognition

thinking about thought

23

emergent literacy

children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences

24

phonological awareness

ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language

25

ordinality

order relationships between quantities

26

cardinality

that the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set

27

child-centered programs

teachers provide a variety of activities from which children elect and much learning takes place through play

28

academic programs

teachers structure children's learning and academic skills through formal lessons often using repetition and drill

29

project head start

federal program from 1965 providing children with a year or two or preschool along with nutritional and health services, parent involvement in critical

30

fast-mapping

process that connects new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter

31

overregularization

over extending the rules to words that are exceptions a type of error

32

pragmatics

children must learn to engage in effective and appropriate communication, - the practical and social side of language

33

recasts

restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form

34

expansions

elaborating on children's speech increasing its complexity