Ch 2 Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 2 Chemistry Deck (91):
1

4 forms of energy

Chemical: Stored in bonds
Electrical: Movement of charged particles
Mechanical: Directly involved in moving matter
Radiant: Travels in waves

2

4 major elements in the human body

HONC:
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Carbon

3

Mass number

Protons + Neutrons

4

Atomic weight

Average of all Isotopes

5

Compound

2 or more diferent molecules combined

6

3 types of mixture

Solution (homogeneous)
Colloid (hetrogeneous)
Susoension (hetrogeneous)

7

Solution

Transparent and the same throughout. Contain solvent (liquid) and solute (what is desolved).

8

Avogadro's number

6.02X10<23

9

Colloids

Emulsions. clear or milky, larger solutes, scatter light. Do not settle

10

Suspentions

Hetrogeneous.Large visible solutes that settle.

11

Ionic Bond

Complete transfer of electrons, charged particles form

12

Polar Covalent Bonds

Unequal sharing of electons, slight - charge at one end and slight + at the other end. (water is polar)

13

Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

Equal sharing of electrons, charges ballance.

14

Chemical reaction

Whenever bonds are formed broken or rearanged

15

Reduction - Oxydation Reactions

Reduction: Gains electron
Oxidation: Donated electron

16

3 chemical reactions

Synthesis
Decomposition
Exchange

17

Synthesis

Construction, anabolic activities

18

Decomposition

Degradative or catabolic process in the body

19

Exchange

Both decomp and synthesis together

20

Factors affecting chemical reactions

Temperature
Concentration
Particle Size
Catalysts

21

Organic vs. inorganic compounds

Orgainic: Contain Carbon
Inorganinc: No Carbon

22

Water

Universal solvant (Polar)
Heat capacity
Vaporization
Reactivity : Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.

23

Salt

An ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and an ions other than (OH-)

24

Electrolytes

All Ions, conduct current in solution.

25

Acids

Release H+, proton donors

26

Base

Take H+, proton acceptors

27

Strong acids

Disasociate completely and irreversible in water

28

Weak acids

Acids that do not completely disociate

29

Why is carbon special?

It is electronuetral
It has 4 vallance electrons

30

Types of carbohydrates

Monsaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides

31

Carbohydrate functions

Provides ready easy to use cellular fuel.
APT is synthesized during its breakdown.

32

Lipids

Fats and oils, Include:
Triglicerides
Phospholipids
Steroids

33

Triglicerides

(natural fats) fats when solid and oil when liquid. Composed of 3 fatty acid chains and gyicerol. Major source of stored energy, protect and insulate organs.

34

Phospholipids

2 fatty acid chains with a phosphorous cantaining group (head). Builds cellular membranes.

35

Steroids

Flat molecule made of 4 interlocking rings. Most important is cholesterol. In cell membrane, Vit D synthesis and hormone production.

36

Eicosanoids

Must get arachidonic acid in your diet to make this 20 chain fatty acid. Leukotrienes: Involved with the coordinating of responses to injury and disease. Prostoglandens: blood clotting, BP, inflammation and labor contractions

37

Proteins

Compose 10-30% of cells and play a vital role in cell function.

38

Amino Acids

The building blocks for proteins. Can be and acid or a base and are all identical except for the R groups.

39

Protein structure

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quaternary

40

Fiberous Proteins

Structural proteins have extended strandlike shape. Can denature.

41

Globular Proteins

Functional Proteins have comppact spherical shape. Stable

42

DNA Bases

Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Thymine

43

RNA Bases

Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Uracil

44

ATP

Released during glucose catabolism. Proforms cellular work.

45

Atomic number

The number of protons in an atom

46

Element

Pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind

47

Isotope

Atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain different numbers of neurons.

48

Radioisotopes

Unstable nuclei, spontaneously give break down and give off subatomic particles or radiation.

49

Atomic mass

The actual mass of an atom of a specific isotope

50

Mole

A specific quantity : Avogadro's number

51

The atoms of elements that are most important to biological systems are ________.

Unstable

52

Inert elements

Do not readily participate in chemical processes.

53

Reactive elements

Unfilled outermost energy levels such as hydrogen and lithium.

54

3 types of chemical bonds:

Covalent
Ionic
Hydrogen

55

Compound

Pure chemical substance made up of two or more elements in fixed proportions, regardless of the type of chemical bond joining them

56

Molecule

Any chemical structure consisting of atoms held together by shared electrons

57

_____ _____of a molecule or compound is the sum of the atomic weights of it's component atoms.

Molecular weight

58

Ion

atom that has electrical charge

59

Cation

Atom with a (+) positive charge

60

Anion

Atom with (-) negative charge

61

Covalent bonds

When atoms bond by sharing electrons

62

Free radical

An atom or electron that contains unpaired electrons in its outermost shell.

63

Polar covalent bonds

An unequal sharing of electrons. (polar bears don't like to share)

64

Nonpolar covalent bonds

An equal sharing of electrons

65

Hydrogen bonds

An attraction (weak force) between a slight positive charge and slight negitive charge

66

Hydrolysis

Breaking a bond by adding H2O

67

Dehydration synthesis

Creating a bond by removing H2O

68

_______ promotes chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required.

Enzymes

69

Catalyst

Class of substances that speed up chemical reactions with out themselves being changed-enzymes are a type of catalyst

70

Properties of water

Solubility
Reactivity
High heat capacity
Lubrication

71

A solution with a pH of 7 is said to be _______, because it contains equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.

neutral

72

A solution with a pH below 7 is _______, meaning that is contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.

acidic

73

A pH above 7 is said to be _____ or ______, meaning there are more hydroxide ions that hydrogen ions.

basic or alkaline

74

Weak acid and weak bases

Do not completely dissociate in water

75

Strong acids and bases:

Do completely dissociate in water

76

Buffer

Compound that stabilize pH by removing or replacing hydrogen ions.

76

Functions of triglycerides

Insulate
Protect
Provides energy reserve

77

3 things that influence the speed or rate of chemical reactions:

Temperature
Concentration of reactants
Presence of catalyst

78

Building block of proteins

Amino acids

79

Building blocks of DNA

Nucleic acids

80

7 functions of proteins

Support
Movement
Transport
Buffering
Metabolic regulation
Coordination and control
Defense

81

Cellulose

Polyssaccharide that id the structural component in many plants. Cannot be digested by our bodies but supplies bulk for our digestive tract.

82

Starch

Polysaccharide formed from glucose molecules, most are manufactured by plants. Can be digested by humans.

83

Glycogen

Polysaccharide, animal starch, has many side branches of chines of glucose molecules.

84

________ are large lipid molecules that share a distinctive four-ring carbon framework.

Steroids
Helps maintain the cells plasma membrane and aids in cell growth and division
Steroid hormones include estrogen, testosterone (sex hormones), and corticosteroids (protein metabolism) and calcitril (Calcuim ion regulation)

85

__________, ___________, and __________ are called structural lipids because they help form and maintain intracellular structures-membranes

Cholesterol, phosphorous, glycolipids

86

5 parts of an amino acid

Central carbon
Hydrogen atom
Amino group
Carboxyl group
R group

87

Peptide bond

Covalent bold that amino acids together.
Join the carboxyl group to the amino group

88

Cofactor

An ion or molecule that must bind ti an enzume before the substrate can also bind (cofactors are a nonprotien organic molecule that can function ad a cofactor)

89

DNA structure

Phosphate group
Nitrogenous base
Deoxyribose (Sugar)

90

RNA Structure

Phosphate group
Nitrogenous base
Ribose (sugar)