Flashcards in Ch 2 Chemistry Deck (91):
4 forms of energy
Chemical: Stored in bonds
Electrical: Movement of charged particles
Mechanical: Directly involved in moving matter
Radiant: Travels in waves
4 major elements in the human body
Protons + Neutrons
Average of all Isotopes
2 or more diferent molecules combined
3 types of mixture
Transparent and the same throughout. Contain solvent (liquid) and solute (what is desolved).
Emulsions. clear or milky, larger solutes, scatter light. Do not settle
Hetrogeneous.Large visible solutes that settle.
Complete transfer of electrons, charged particles form
Polar Covalent Bonds
Unequal sharing of electons, slight - charge at one end and slight + at the other end. (water is polar)
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
Equal sharing of electrons, charges ballance.
Whenever bonds are formed broken or rearanged
Reduction - Oxydation Reactions
Reduction: Gains electron
Oxidation: Donated electron
3 chemical reactions
Construction, anabolic activities
Degradative or catabolic process in the body
Both decomp and synthesis together
Factors affecting chemical reactions
Organic vs. inorganic compounds
Orgainic: Contain Carbon
Inorganinc: No Carbon
Universal solvant (Polar)
Reactivity : Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.
An ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and an ions other than (OH-)
All Ions, conduct current in solution.
Release H+, proton donors
Take H+, proton acceptors
Disasociate completely and irreversible in water
Acids that do not completely disociate
Why is carbon special?
It is electronuetral
It has 4 vallance electrons
Types of carbohydrates
Provides ready easy to use cellular fuel.
APT is synthesized during its breakdown.
Fats and oils, Include:
(natural fats) fats when solid and oil when liquid. Composed of 3 fatty acid chains and gyicerol. Major source of stored energy, protect and insulate organs.
2 fatty acid chains with a phosphorous cantaining group (head). Builds cellular membranes.
Flat molecule made of 4 interlocking rings. Most important is cholesterol. In cell membrane, Vit D synthesis and hormone production.
Must get arachidonic acid in your diet to make this 20 chain fatty acid. Leukotrienes: Involved with the coordinating of responses to injury and disease. Prostoglandens: blood clotting, BP, inflammation and labor contractions
Compose 10-30% of cells and play a vital role in cell function.
The building blocks for proteins. Can be and acid or a base and are all identical except for the R groups.
Structural proteins have extended strandlike shape. Can denature.
Functional Proteins have comppact spherical shape. Stable
Released during glucose catabolism. Proforms cellular work.
The number of protons in an atom
Pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind
Atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain different numbers of neurons.
Unstable nuclei, spontaneously give break down and give off subatomic particles or radiation.
The actual mass of an atom of a specific isotope
A specific quantity : Avogadro's number
The atoms of elements that are most important to biological systems are ________.
Do not readily participate in chemical processes.
Unfilled outermost energy levels such as hydrogen and lithium.
3 types of chemical bonds:
Pure chemical substance made up of two or more elements in fixed proportions, regardless of the type of chemical bond joining them
Any chemical structure consisting of atoms held together by shared electrons
_____ _____of a molecule or compound is the sum of the atomic weights of it's component atoms.
atom that has electrical charge
Atom with a (+) positive charge
Atom with (-) negative charge
When atoms bond by sharing electrons
An atom or electron that contains unpaired electrons in its outermost shell.
Polar covalent bonds
An unequal sharing of electrons. (polar bears don't like to share)
Nonpolar covalent bonds
An equal sharing of electrons
An attraction (weak force) between a slight positive charge and slight negitive charge
Breaking a bond by adding H2O
Creating a bond by removing H2O
_______ promotes chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required.
Class of substances that speed up chemical reactions with out themselves being changed-enzymes are a type of catalyst
Properties of water
High heat capacity
A solution with a pH of 7 is said to be _______, because it contains equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
A solution with a pH below 7 is _______, meaning that is contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.
A pH above 7 is said to be _____ or ______, meaning there are more hydroxide ions that hydrogen ions.
basic or alkaline
Weak acid and weak bases
Do not completely dissociate in water
Strong acids and bases:
Do completely dissociate in water
Compound that stabilize pH by removing or replacing hydrogen ions.
Functions of triglycerides
Provides energy reserve
3 things that influence the speed or rate of chemical reactions:
Concentration of reactants
Presence of catalyst
Building block of proteins
Building blocks of DNA
7 functions of proteins
Coordination and control
Polyssaccharide that id the structural component in many plants. Cannot be digested by our bodies but supplies bulk for our digestive tract.
Polysaccharide formed from glucose molecules, most are manufactured by plants. Can be digested by humans.
Polysaccharide, animal starch, has many side branches of chines of glucose molecules.
________ are large lipid molecules that share a distinctive four-ring carbon framework.
Helps maintain the cells plasma membrane and aids in cell growth and division
Steroid hormones include estrogen, testosterone (sex hormones), and corticosteroids (protein metabolism) and calcitril (Calcuim ion regulation)
__________, ___________, and __________ are called structural lipids because they help form and maintain intracellular structures-membranes
Cholesterol, phosphorous, glycolipids
5 parts of an amino acid
Covalent bold that amino acids together.
Join the carboxyl group to the amino group
An ion or molecule that must bind ti an enzume before the substrate can also bind (cofactors are a nonprotien organic molecule that can function ad a cofactor)