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Flashcards in Brain and Cranial Nerves Deck (37):
1

6 Brain Structures

Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Diencephalon
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

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Cerebrum Function

Conscious though processes, intellectual functioning
Memory storage and processing
Conscious and subconscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions

3

Cerebellum Function

Coordinates complex somatic motor patterns
Adjusts out put of other somatic motor centers in the brain and spinal cord

4

Diencephalon function

The structural and functional link between the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem
1. Thalamus: Relay and processing centers for sensory information
2. Hypothalamus: Centers controlling emotions, autonomic functions and hormone production.

5

Midbrain Function

Also called the mesencephalon
Processing of visual and auditory data
Generation of reflexive somatic motor responses
Maintenance of consciousness

6

Pons Function

Connects the cerebellum to the brain stem
Relays sensory information to cerebellum and thalamus
Subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers

7

Medulla oblongata

Connects the brain to the spinal cord
Relays sensory information to the thalamus and other parts of the brain stem.
Autonomic centers for regulation of visceral function - cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive

8

What 3 parts make up the brain stem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

9

3 brain Vesicles

Prosencephalon --- Cerebrun and lateral ventricles
Mesencephalon ---Midbrain and Cerebral aqueduct
Cerebellum and the ponds form between
Rhombencephalon --- Medulla oblongata and fourth ventricles

10

Ventricles and their structures

Two lateral ventricles connected inferiority to the third ventricle by the interventricular foreman. The cerebral aqueduct connects the third ventrical to the fourth ventricle which connects to the central canal

11

3 protective linings of the brain

Pia mater: Sticks to the surface of the brain anchored by the astrocytes.
Arachniod mater: Consistes of the arachnoid membrane and arachnoid trabeculae
Dura mater: Inner and outer fibrous layers. Outer layer is fused to the peritoneum

12

Functions of CSF

1. Cushioning
2. Supporting
3. Transporting nutrients, chemical messengers and wastes.

13

Where is CSF formed

In the choroid plexus within each ventricle.
It contains ependymal cells with microvilli and tight junctions
They secrete CSF into the ventricles and remove wastes.

14

What 3 parts make up the diencephalon?

Epithalamus
Thalamus
Hypothamalus

15

Epithalamus

The roof of the diencephalon superior to the 3rd ventricle
Posterior portion contains the pineal gland

16

Thalamus

Final relay point for sensory information on its way to the primary sensory cortex

17

Hypothalamus

Subconscious control of skeletal muscle
Control of autonomic functions
Coordinates nervous and endocrine actions
Secretion of two hormones: ADH and Oxytocin
Production of emotion and behavior
Coordination between voluntary and autonomic functions
Regulation of body temp
Control of sleep cycles

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Limbic system

A group of tracts and nuclei that function in emotion, motivation and memory

19

Amygdaloid

Helps control the fight or flight response and links emotions to specific memories

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Basel Nuclei

Takes part in processing sensory information and initiating motor commands involuntarily

21

4 types of brain waves

Alpha waves: characteristic of normal resting adults
Beta waves: typically accompany intense concentration
Theta waves: Are seen in children and frustrated adults
Delta waves: Occur in deep sleep and certain pathological conditions.

22

mnemonic for cranial nerves

Oh Once One Takes The Anatomy Final Very Good Vacations Are Heavenly

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Cranial Nerves

Olfactory
Optic
Occulomotor
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Abducens
Facial
Vestibulocochlear
Glossopharyngeal
Vegas
Accessory
Hypoglosseal

24

Sensory vs. motor mnemonic for cranial nerves

Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More

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Cranial Nerve I

Olfactory - Sensory
Only cranial nerve attached to the cerebrum
Sense of smell

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Cranial Nerve II

Optic - Sensory
Follow the optic tract to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe

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Cranial Nerve III

Occulomotor - Motor
Inferior and Medial Rectus
Inferior Oblique
Intrinsic eye muscles

28

Cranial Nerve IV

Trochlear - Motor

Superior Oblique muscle
Smallest cranial nerve

29

Cranial Nerve V

Trigeminal -Both
Three branches on the face
1. Ophthalmic: eye and forehead
2. Maxillary: Cheek and side nose
3. Mandibular: lower jaw and tongue (mastication)

30

Cranial Nerve VI

Abducens -Motor
Lateral Rectus Muscle
Move eyes laterally

31

Cranial Nerve VII

Facial - Both
Facial expression, lacrimal, saliva and mucus production

32

Cranial Nerve VIII

Vestibulocochelear - Sensory
Balance and Hearing

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Cranial Verve IX

Glossopharyngeal - Both
Tongue (posterior 3rd) and part of the Pharynx and palate

34

Cranial Nerve X

Vegas - Both
Heart, lungs, digestive tract also involved in swallowing

35

Cranial Nerve XI

Accessory - Motor
Only cranial nerves connected tot eh spinal cord
Swallowing, soft pallet pharynx and vocal cords
SCM and trapezoid

36

Cranial Nerve XII

Hypoglosseal - Motor
Tongue movement

37

Cranial Reflexes

Automatic responses to stimuli that involve the cranial nerves