Bones Ch 6 - Ch 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bones Ch 6 - Ch 9 Deck (56)
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1

3 skeletal cartilage types

Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage

2

Hyaline

Most abundant, and made of fine collagen fibers.Support, flexibility and resistance.
Located: Articular, Coastal, respiratory and nasal cartilages.

3

Elastic Cartilage

Similar to hyaline but made up of flexible elastic fibers as well. Location: External ear and epiglottis.

4

Fibrocartilage

Highly compressible, made of chondrocytes alternating with collagen fibers.
Location: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis and menisci

5

How does cartilage grow?

Appositional growth:from the out side.
Interstitial growth: from the inside.

6

4 bone types

Sutural
Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Sesamoid

7

Bone function

Support
Storage of minerals and lipids
Blood cell production
Protection
Leverage

8

2 most important minerals in bone

calcium and phosphate

9

Trabeculae

Honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces in spongy bone

10

diaphysis

Shaft that forms the long axis of the bone

11

Epiphysis

Bone ends, filled with spongy bone (no medullary space) and covered with compact bone.

12

Epiphyseal line

Divides the diaphysis and epiphysis and was the site of the growth plate in the youth (epiphyseal plate)

13

Bone membranes

Periosteum
Endosteum

14

Periosteum

White double layer membrane surrounding the bone, outside made of irregular CT, inside made of osreogenic stem cells

15

Endosteum

Delicate connective tissue layer that lines the inside of the bone. Contains osteogenic stem cells.

16

Nutrient foramen

Opening in the bone which the blood supply and nerves pass through

17

Sharpey's fibers

Perforating fibers that anchor the periosteum to the bone and provide anchor points for ligaments and tendons.

18

Red marrow cavities

Found in spongy bone and is where hematopoiesis takes place--mostly in hip sternum,and heads of femur and humerus.

19

Bone markings

Projections, depressions and openings that serve as sights for muscle, tendon and ligament attachments.

20

Bone tissue cells

Osteogenic
Osteoblasts
Osteocyte
Osteoclast

21

Osteogenic cells

Mitotic stem cells, located in periosteum and endosteum.

22

Osteoblasts

Matrix synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth. Trigger the deposit of calcium salts in the organic matrix.
Osteocytes develop from osteoblasts.

23

Osteocyte

Mature bone cell that monitors and maintains the bone matrix-make up most of the cell population and occupy the lacuna.
Maintain protein and mineral content of the matrix
Involved in repair of damaged bones

24

Osteoclast

Bone reabsorbing cells. Use enzymes to break down bone and release stored minerals (osteolysis)
Large with 50+ nuclei
Derive from the cells that produce monocytes and macrophages, not from osteogenic stem cells

25

Components of compact bone

Osteon
Lamella
Canals & Canaliculi

26

Osteon

Tiny weight baring pillars, run parallel to the long across of the bone

27

Lamella

Each flat layer of the osteon, wrapped around the center like a tree trunk. Collagen fibers rin diagonally in opposite directions in each layer.

28

Canals

Central canals: Run through the core of each osteon
Perforating (Vilkmann's) canals: Run from periosteum to medullary cavity.

29

Lamellae

Interstitial lamella: Incomplete lamella between osteons
Circumferential lamella: wrap around ostoens, under periosteum.
Hard matrix between cells

30

Bone composition

Organic: Bone cells and ground substances such as collagen
Inorganic: mineral salts, largely clacium phosphates.