Flashcards in Bones Ch 6 - Ch 9 Deck (56):
3 skeletal cartilage types
Most abundant, and made of fine collagen fibers.Support, flexibility and resistance.
Located: Articular, Coastal, respiratory and nasal cartilages.
Similar to hyaline but made up of flexible elastic fibers as well. Location: External ear and epiglottis.
Highly compressible, made of chondrocytes alternating with collagen fibers.
Location: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis and menisci
How does cartilage grow?
Appositional growth:from the out side.
Interstitial growth: from the inside.
4 bone types
Storage of minerals and lipids
Blood cell production
2 most important minerals in bone
calcium and phosphate
Honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces in spongy bone
Shaft that forms the long axis of the bone
Bone ends, filled with spongy bone (no medullary space) and covered with compact bone.
Divides the diaphysis and epiphysis and was the site of the growth plate in the youth (epiphyseal plate)
White double layer membrane surrounding the bone, outside made of irregular CT, inside made of osreogenic stem cells
Delicate connective tissue layer that lines the inside of the bone. Contains osteogenic stem cells.
Opening in the bone which the blood supply and nerves pass through
Perforating fibers that anchor the periosteum to the bone and provide anchor points for ligaments and tendons.
Red marrow cavities
Found in spongy bone and is where hematopoiesis takes place--mostly in hip sternum,and heads of femur and humerus.
Projections, depressions and openings that serve as sights for muscle, tendon and ligament attachments.
Bone tissue cells
Mitotic stem cells, located in periosteum and endosteum.
Matrix synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth. Trigger the deposit of calcium salts in the organic matrix.
Osteocytes develop from osteoblasts.
Mature bone cell that monitors and maintains the bone matrix-make up most of the cell population and occupy the lacuna.
Maintain protein and mineral content of the matrix
Involved in repair of damaged bones
Bone reabsorbing cells. Use enzymes to break down bone and release stored minerals (osteolysis)
Large with 50+ nuclei
Derive from the cells that produce monocytes and macrophages, not from osteogenic stem cells
Components of compact bone
Canals & Canaliculi
Tiny weight baring pillars, run parallel to the long across of the bone
Each flat layer of the osteon, wrapped around the center like a tree trunk. Collagen fibers rin diagonally in opposite directions in each layer.
Central canals: Run through the core of each osteon
Perforating (Vilkmann's) canals: Run from periosteum to medullary cavity.
Interstitial lamella: Incomplete lamella between osteons
Circumferential lamella: wrap around ostoens, under periosteum.
Hard matrix between cells
Organic: Bone cells and ground substances such as collagen
Inorganic: mineral salts, largely clacium phosphates.
2 types of bone formation
7 stages of endochondal ossificstion
1. Matrix starts to form as chondrocytes enlarge in the center
2. Blood vessels grow around the edges of the cartilage and perichondrium cells convert to osteoblasts
3.Blood vessels penetrate, fibroblasts migrate in and turn to osteoblasts, primary ossification center forms spongy bone.
4. Remodeling creates a medullary cavity, length and diameter increase
5. Capillarity and osteoblasts migrate into epiphyses and form secondary ossification center
6. Epiphyseal plate forms and separates the diaphysis and epiphysis.
7. Epiphyseal closure occurs at puberty
1. Mesenchymal cells cluster together, differentiate into osteoblasts and begins to form bone matrix
2. Ossification proceeds and some osteoblasts are trapped and differentiate into osteocytes.
3. Blood vessels move in and accelerate growth, they become trapped in the matrix.
4. Woven bone and periosteum forms with blood vessels throughout
5. Osteons develop and surface tissue becomes periosteum.
Growth from epiphyeal plate
1. Proliferation zone: Mitosis of cartilage cells
2. Hypertrophic Zone: Older cartilage cells enlarge.
3. Calcification; Matrix calcifies, cartilage cells die, matrix begins deteriorating & blood vessels invade.
4. Ossification zone: new bone forms
Hormonal Controls for bone remodeling
Calcitonin: Calcium in to bone
Parathyroid hormone: Calcium out
Common types of fractures
Transverse: Break of a bone shaft across its long axis
Displaced/non-displaced: new abnormal bone arrangements/retain the normal alignment
Compression: Vertebrae subjected to extreme stress
Spiral: Produced by twisting stress that spreads along the length of the bone
Epiphyseal: Break that occurs where the cartilage is ossifying
Comminuted: Shatter affected area into a multitude of bony fragments
Greenstick: One side of the shaft is broken and the other is bent (common in children)
Colles: Distal portion of the radius, common in breaking a fall
Pott's: Occurs in the ankle and affects multiple bones
4 Stages for healing a fracture
1. Hemotoma forms
2. Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
3. Bony callus forms
4. Bone remodeling occures
Cracks that filaments run through in lamellae
Also called Wormian bones
Small, flat, oddly shaped bones that are found between the flat bones of the skill.
Borders are like jigsaw puzzle pieces
Complex shapes with short, flat, notched or ridged surfaces.
Vertebrae, the bones of the pelvis and some bones in the cranium
Boxlike in appearance
Carpals and tarsals
Have thin parallel surfaces
Roof of the skill, sternum, and scapula.
Relatively long and slender
Located in arm, forearm, thigh, soles, fingers and toes
Usually small round and flat.
Develop inside tendons and are most often encountered near joints
Patella is an example that everyone has
Types of bone markings:
Elevations and projections
Processes where tendons and ligaments attach
Processes where joints occur between adjacent bones
Elevations and projections (2)
Process: projection or bump
Ramus: Extension of a bone that forms an angle with the rest of the structure
Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach (6)
Trochanter: Large rough projection
Crest: Prominent ridge
Spine: Pointed process
Line: Low ridge
Tubercle: Small rounded projection
Tuberosity: rough projection
Sulcus: Narrow groove
Fossa: Shallow depression
Sinus: Chamber with in a bone, normally filled with air
Foramen: Rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves to pass
Fissure: Deep furrow, cleft or slit
Meatus: Passage or channel, especially the opening of a channel
Canal: Duct or channel
Processes formed where joints occur (5)
Head: Expanded articular end of an epiphysis
Neck: Narrow connection between epiphysis and diaphysis
Facet: Small flat articular surface
Condyle: Smooth rounded articular process
Trochlea: Smooth grooved articular process shaped like a pully
Provides support and stores minerals
Mesh work of supporting trabeculae which are surrounded by bone marrow
Lighter than compact and can withstand stress from multiple directions
In the spongy bone in the epiphyses of long bones and in large bones such as the sternum and ilium.
Forms red blood cells
contains adipose tissue that is important as an energy reserve
Functions to protect, support and resist stress
Basic functional unit is the osteon which are arranged around a central canal.
Also called the Harversian canal, contains one or more blood vessels.
Run parallel to the bones surface.