Bones Ch 6 - Ch 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bones Ch 6 - Ch 9 Deck (56):
1

3 skeletal cartilage types

Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage

2

Hyaline

Most abundant, and made of fine collagen fibers.Support, flexibility and resistance.
Located: Articular, Coastal, respiratory and nasal cartilages.

3

Elastic Cartilage

Similar to hyaline but made up of flexible elastic fibers as well. Location: External ear and epiglottis.

4

Fibrocartilage

Highly compressible, made of chondrocytes alternating with collagen fibers.
Location: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis and menisci

5

How does cartilage grow?

Appositional growth:from the out side.
Interstitial growth: from the inside.

6

4 bone types

Sutural
Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Sesamoid

7

Bone function

Support
Storage of minerals and lipids
Blood cell production
Protection
Leverage

8

2 most important minerals in bone

calcium and phosphate

9

Trabeculae

Honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces in spongy bone

10

diaphysis

Shaft that forms the long axis of the bone

11

Epiphysis

Bone ends, filled with spongy bone (no medullary space) and covered with compact bone.

12

Epiphyseal line

Divides the diaphysis and epiphysis and was the site of the growth plate in the youth (epiphyseal plate)

13

Bone membranes

Periosteum
Endosteum

14

Periosteum

White double layer membrane surrounding the bone, outside made of irregular CT, inside made of osreogenic stem cells

15

Endosteum

Delicate connective tissue layer that lines the inside of the bone. Contains osteogenic stem cells.

16

Nutrient foramen

Opening in the bone which the blood supply and nerves pass through

17

Sharpey's fibers

Perforating fibers that anchor the periosteum to the bone and provide anchor points for ligaments and tendons.

18

Red marrow cavities

Found in spongy bone and is where hematopoiesis takes place--mostly in hip sternum,and heads of femur and humerus.

19

Bone markings

Projections, depressions and openings that serve as sights for muscle, tendon and ligament attachments.

20

Bone tissue cells

Osteogenic
Osteoblasts
Osteocyte
Osteoclast

21

Osteogenic cells

Mitotic stem cells, located in periosteum and endosteum.

22

Osteoblasts

Matrix synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth. Trigger the deposit of calcium salts in the organic matrix.
Osteocytes develop from osteoblasts.

23

Osteocyte

Mature bone cell that monitors and maintains the bone matrix-make up most of the cell population and occupy the lacuna.
Maintain protein and mineral content of the matrix
Involved in repair of damaged bones

24

Osteoclast

Bone reabsorbing cells. Use enzymes to break down bone and release stored minerals (osteolysis)
Large with 50+ nuclei
Derive from the cells that produce monocytes and macrophages, not from osteogenic stem cells

25

Components of compact bone

Osteon
Lamella
Canals & Canaliculi

26

Osteon

Tiny weight baring pillars, run parallel to the long across of the bone

27

Lamella

Each flat layer of the osteon, wrapped around the center like a tree trunk. Collagen fibers rin diagonally in opposite directions in each layer.

28

Canals

Central canals: Run through the core of each osteon
Perforating (Vilkmann's) canals: Run from periosteum to medullary cavity.

29

Lamellae

Interstitial lamella: Incomplete lamella between osteons
Circumferential lamella: wrap around ostoens, under periosteum.
Hard matrix between cells

30

Bone composition

Organic: Bone cells and ground substances such as collagen
Inorganic: mineral salts, largely clacium phosphates.

31

2 types of bone formation

endochondal ossification:
Intermembranous ossification

32

7 stages of endochondal ossificstion

1. Matrix starts to form as chondrocytes enlarge in the center
2. Blood vessels grow around the edges of the cartilage and perichondrium cells convert to osteoblasts
3.Blood vessels penetrate, fibroblasts migrate in and turn to osteoblasts, primary ossification center forms spongy bone.
4. Remodeling creates a medullary cavity, length and diameter increase
5. Capillarity and osteoblasts migrate into epiphyses and form secondary ossification center
6. Epiphyseal plate forms and separates the diaphysis and epiphysis.
7. Epiphyseal closure occurs at puberty

33

Intermembranous ossification

1. Mesenchymal cells cluster together, differentiate into osteoblasts and begins to form bone matrix
2. Ossification proceeds and some osteoblasts are trapped and differentiate into osteocytes.
3. Blood vessels move in and accelerate growth, they become trapped in the matrix.
4. Woven bone and periosteum forms with blood vessels throughout
5. Osteons develop and surface tissue becomes periosteum.

34

Growth from epiphyeal plate

1. Proliferation zone: Mitosis of cartilage cells
2. Hypertrophic Zone: Older cartilage cells enlarge.
3. Calcification; Matrix calcifies, cartilage cells die, matrix begins deteriorating & blood vessels invade.
4. Ossification zone: new bone forms

35

Hormonal Controls for bone remodeling

Calcitonin: Calcium in to bone
Parathyroid hormone: Calcium out

36

Common types of fractures

Transverse: Break of a bone shaft across its long axis
Displaced/non-displaced: new abnormal bone arrangements/retain the normal alignment
Compression: Vertebrae subjected to extreme stress
Spiral: Produced by twisting stress that spreads along the length of the bone
Epiphyseal: Break that occurs where the cartilage is ossifying
Comminuted: Shatter affected area into a multitude of bony fragments
Greenstick: One side of the shaft is broken and the other is bent (common in children)
Colles: Distal portion of the radius, common in breaking a fall
Pott's: Occurs in the ankle and affects multiple bones

37

4 Stages for healing a fracture

1. Hemotoma forms
2. Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
3. Bony callus forms
4. Bone remodeling occures

38

Canaliculi

Cracks that filaments run through in lamellae

39

Sutural bones

Also called Wormian bones
Small, flat, oddly shaped bones that are found between the flat bones of the skill.
Borders are like jigsaw puzzle pieces

40

Irregular bones

Complex shapes with short, flat, notched or ridged surfaces.
Vertebrae, the bones of the pelvis and some bones in the cranium

41

Short bones

Boxlike in appearance
Carpals and tarsals

42

Flat bones

Have thin parallel surfaces
Roof of the skill, sternum, and scapula.

43

Long bones

Relatively long and slender
Located in arm, forearm, thigh, soles, fingers and toes

44

Sesamoid bones

Usually small round and flat.
Develop inside tendons and are most often encountered near joints
Patella is an example that everyone has

45

Types of bone markings:

Elevations and projections
Openings
Depressions
Processes where tendons and ligaments attach
Processes where joints occur between adjacent bones

46

Elevations and projections (2)

Process: projection or bump
Ramus: Extension of a bone that forms an angle with the rest of the structure

47

Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach (6)

Trochanter: Large rough projection
Crest: Prominent ridge
Spine: Pointed process
Line: Low ridge
Tubercle: Small rounded projection
Tuberosity: rough projection

48

Depressions (2)

Sulcus: Narrow groove
Fossa: Shallow depression

49

Openings (5)

Sinus: Chamber with in a bone, normally filled with air
Foramen: Rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves to pass
Fissure: Deep furrow, cleft or slit
Meatus: Passage or channel, especially the opening of a channel
Canal: Duct or channel

50

Processes formed where joints occur (5)

Head: Expanded articular end of an epiphysis
Neck: Narrow connection between epiphysis and diaphysis
Facet: Small flat articular surface
Condyle: Smooth rounded articular process
Trochlea: Smooth grooved articular process shaped like a pully

51

Spongy bone

Provides support and stores minerals
Mesh work of supporting trabeculae which are surrounded by bone marrow
Lighter than compact and can withstand stress from multiple directions

52

Red marrow

In the spongy bone in the epiphyses of long bones and in large bones such as the sternum and ilium.
Forms red blood cells

53

Yellow marrow

contains adipose tissue that is important as an energy reserve

54

Compact bone

Functions to protect, support and resist stress
Basic functional unit is the osteon which are arranged around a central canal.

55

Central canal

Also called the Harversian canal, contains one or more blood vessels.
Run parallel to the bones surface.

56

Perforating Canals

Also called Volksmann's canals run perpendicular to the surface and supply blood to the deeper osteons and medullary cavity.