Chapter 9 Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Joints Deck (29):
1

3 joint categories of joints according to motion

Synarthrosis: immovable
Amphiarthrosis: slightly movable joint
Diarthrosis: freely movable joint

2

3 categories of joints according to framework

Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

3

2 fiberous synarthrosis joints

Suture: in the skull
Gomphosis: teeth

4

Cartilaginous synarthrosis

Synchondrosis: ridged cartilage bridge between two bones such as the ribs and sternum

5

Bony synarthrosis

Synostosis: When two bones fuse completely such as the frontal bone

6

Fiberous amphiarthrosis

Syndesosis: bones are connected by a ligament such as the distal tibia and fibula

7

Cartilaginous amphiarthrosis

Symphysis: articulating bones that are connected by a wedge or pad of fibrocartilage, pubis symphysis

8

Synovial diarthrosis

All synovial joints

9

Accessory structures of synovial joints

Cartilage and fat pads
Tendons
Ligaments

10

Cartilage and fat pads

Meniscus lies between opposing articular surfaces and may subdivide the cavity and channel the flow of synovial fluid
Fat pads are localized patches of adipose tissue that are covered by synovial membrane. Protect cartilages and act as packing material.

11

Ligaments

Support strengthen and support and reinforce synovial joints.
Intrinsic ligaments are localized thickening of the joint capsule
Extrinsic ligaments are separate from the joint capsule

12

Tendons

Not a part of the joint but provide mechanical support for it by limiting the ROM

13

Bursae

Small synovial fluid filled sacs that are found anywhere tendons and ligaments rub against other tissues; reduce friction and absorb shock.

14

6 classifications of synovial joints

Gliding
Hinge
Condylar
Saddle
Pivot
Ball and socket

15

Gliding joint

Slight movement of flattened surfaces that slide across one another: acromioclavicular

16

Hinge joint

Monoaxial, permit angular motion in a single plane; elbow

17

Condylar joint

Biaxial. Oval articular surface nestled within a depression on the opposing surface; Radiocarpal and metacarpals 2-5

18

Saddle joint

Biaxial. Concave and convex surfaces that articulate in angular and slide biaxial; thumb

19

Pivot joint

Only permit rotation; atlantoaxial joint and proximal radial ulnar joint

20

Ball and socket joint

Circumdunction and rotation, triaxial; shoulder and hip

21

Intervertebral discs

Anulus fibrosis: tough outer layer
Nucleus pulposus: soft, elastic, gelatinous core
Vertebral end plate: composed of hyaline cartilage

22

Intervertebral ligaments

Anterior longitudinal: connects anterior surfaces of vertebral bodies
Posterior longitudinal: connects posterior surfaces of vertebral bodies
Ligamentum flavum: connects lamina of adjacent vertebrae
Intraspinous: between spinous process
Supraspnous: connects the tips of the spinous process

23

Glenoid labrum

Fibrocartilage cavity that increases the glenoid cavity beyond the bone ridge.

24

Major ligaments that stabilize the shoulder joint

Glenohumeral
Coracohumeral
corscronaromial
coracoclavicular
Acromioclvicular

25

Rotater cuff muscles (SITS)

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Subscapularis

26

The elbow is extremely stable because:

1. the bony surfaces of the ulna and humerus interlock
2. a single thick articular capsule surrounds both the humeroulnar and proximal radioulnar joints
3. strong ligaments reinforce the articular capsule.

27

Acetabular labrum

A projecting rim of rubbery fibrocartilage that increases the the depth of the joint cavity and helps to seal in synovial fluid

28

3 separate articulations of the knee

two between the femur and the tibia and one between the femur and the patella

29

The menisci

1. act as cushions
2. conform to the shape of the articulating surfaces as the femur changes shape
3. provides lateral stability