Ch 1 Orientation Flashcards Preview

A&P 241 > Ch 1 Orientation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 1 Orientation Deck (48):
1

Anatomy

Structure

2

Physiology

Function

3

Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy

The study of large structures visible to the naked eye: Regional, Systemic & Surface.

4

Regional

Studying structures according to region (abd pelvis chect ect.)

5

Systemic anatomy

Studying system by stetem, (cardiovascular,respiratory reproductive ect.)

6

Surface

Study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin.

7

Microscopic anatomy

Deals with structures too small to be seen by the naked eye: Cytology and Histology.

8

Cytology

The cells in the body

9

Histology

The study of tissues

10

Develoopmental biology

Traces structural changes that occure throughout the life span. (embryology ia a subdivision)

11

Levels of organization

Chemical
cellular
tissue
organ
organ system
organism

12

Necessary Life functions

Maintianing boundaries
Movement
Responsiveness
Digestion
Metabolism
Excretion
Reproduction
Growth

13

Survival needs

Nutrients
Oxygen
Water
Normal body temp
Normal atmosphereic pressure

14

Homeostasis

Maintaining stable internal conditions inspite of changing external conditions.

15

Variable

The factor being regulated

16

3 Homeostaic controls

Receptor
Control Center
Effector

17

Receptor

Sensor that monitors the enviroment and responds to changes.

18

Control Center

Determins the set point, level or range that the variable is maintained.

19

Effector

Provides the means for the control centers responce to the stimuli

20

Negitive feed back mechanisms

The output shuts off the original effect of the stimuli or reduces it's intensity. Maintian a range

21

Positive feed back mechanisms

Enhances the original stimuli so that the responce is accelerated. Push pash a range

22

2 functional divisions of our body

Axial an appendicular

23

3 planes

Coronal
Transverse
Sagittal

24

Midsagittal Plane

Vertical plane that devides the body into left and right sides

25

Coronal Plane

Vertiacal plane, divides body into anterior and posterior.

26

Transverse

Horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior

27

Dorsal Body Cavity

Crainal and vertebral/spinal cavities.

28

Ventral Body Cavity

Thorasic and Abdominopelvic cavities

29

9 abdominal quadrants

R hypochondriac, Epigastric, L hypochondriac, R lumbar, umbilical, L lumbar, R iliac (inguinal), hpogastric (pubic), L iliac (inguinal)

30

Membranes in Ventral cavity

Serosa: thin double layered memnbrne
Parietal Serosa: Lining the cavity walls
Vicceral Serosa: Covering the organs in the cavity

31

What is the oldest medical science

Anatomy- "cutting open"

32

Principle of complementary structure and function

All specific functions are performed by specific structures

33

What is the boundary from microscopic anatomy to microscopic anatomy

At the organ level

34

Name the physiology specialities

Cell physiology
Organ physiology
System physiology
Pathophysiology

35

Scientific method

System of advancing knowledge:
Posing a hypothesis to answer a question
Testing the hypothesis with data collected with observation and experiment

36

Homeostatic regulation

The adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis

37

Autoregulation

A process that occurs when a cell, tissue, organ or organ system responds to some environmental change

38

Extrinsic regulation

A process that results from activities of the nervous system or endocrine system in response to environmental changes

39

Nervous response vs. endocrine response time

Nervous = rapid-short term
Endocrine = may not be immediate-may last for days/weeks

40

What is the primary mechanism for maintaining homeostasis

Negative feedback: provides long term control over the bodies internal conditions and systems

41

In _________, an initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the original change in conditions, rather than opposing it.

Positive feed back

42

When is a positive feedback typically found in the body?

When a potentially dangerous or stressful process must be completed quickly to restore homeostasis

43

Astate of ________ exists when opposing processes or forces are in balance.

Equilibrium

44

True body cavities are:

closed, fluid-filled and lined by a thin tissue layer called a serous membrane

45

Two functions of body cavities in the trunk:

Protect organs from shock and impact
Permit changes in size and shape or the internal organs

46

Viscera

Internal organs that are enclosed by body cavities.

47

Visceral serosa

Membrane that covers the visceral organs

48

Parietal Serosa

Membrane that lines the body wall