Histology Ch 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histology Ch 4 Deck (53):
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Epithelial tissue

Covers body surface and lines body cavities.

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Covering and lining epithelium

covers and lines exterior and interior visceral surfaces

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Glandular epithelium

Most or all produce secretions. Discharging them onto the surface of the epithelium or into the interstitial fluid and blood.

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5 special characteristics of epithelial tussue

Cellularity (bound together by cell junctions)

Polarity (refers to the structural and functional differences between the apical surface and basal surface)

Attachment (to the basement membrane/basal lamina)

Avascularity (receive nutrients by diffusion/ absorption from exposed or attached epith. surfaces)    

Regeneration (damaged and lost cells are replaced by the division of stem cells in the epithelium) 

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Polarity

Inner and outer surfaces with different structure and function. Called apical-basal polarity

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Apical Surface

An upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the internal organ cavity. Include Microvilli and Cilia

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Basal Surface

Lower attached surface.

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Microvilli

Finger like extentions of the plasma membrane that greatly increase exposed surface area

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Cilia

Tiny hairlike projections that propel substances along their free surfaces

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Basal lamina

A line supporting sheet adjacent to the basal surface. Selective barrier and scaffolding for cells to repair wounds

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Specialized Contacts

Close lateral connections including tight connections and desmosomes.

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Supported by connective tissue

Reticular lamina:beneath the basal lamina, fine network of fibers Basement membrane is formed by the two laminae

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Avascular but innervated

no blood vessels but is supplied by nerve fibers.

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Regulation

protective covering replaces it's self rapidly

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Epithelial classification by number

Simple: single layer found where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur. Stratified: Two or more layers in high friction areas like lining of the mouth.

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Epithelial classification by shape

Squamous: Flat, scale like Cuboidal: boxlike Columnar: tall column shaped.

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2 types of glands

Endocrine (ductless) and Endocrine (have ducts)

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Where do you find epithelial tissue

Covering, lining and glands

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3 Epithelial cell shape

squamous cuboidal columnar

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Types of connective tissues

Connective tissue proper: loose and dense Fluid connective tissue: blood and lymph Supporting connective tissue: cartilage and bone

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Connective Tissue Proper

1. Loose Connective tissue 2. Dense connective tissue

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Loose connective tissue

"packing materials" for the body, fill spaces between organs, cushion and stabilize cells in many organs: Areolar Adipose Reticular (mucus connective tissue in embryos)

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Dense connective tissue

Collagen fibers are the dominate fiber type Regular Irregular Elastic ie. tendons

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Cartilage

Hyaline Cartilage (tough but flexible ie. between ribs & sternum)  Fibrocartilage (resists compression and absorbs shock ie. invertebral discs) Elastic cartilage(resilient and flexible ie. ear)

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Bone (osseous)

Compact Spongy

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Hyaline Cartilage

Most common,tough and somewhat flexible: Articular cartilages Connect ribs to sternum Conducting airways and nasal cartilages

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Elastic cartilage

Elastic tissue, extremely resilient and flexible: Outer ear Epiglottis

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3 components of connective tissue

Specialized cells Extracellular protein fibers A fluid ground substance

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4 membranes in the body

serous cutaneous mucous synovial

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2 cell populations that make up neural tissue

Neurons Neuroglia

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Similarities in muscle cells

Actin and myosin interactions produce contractions, Calcium ions trigger and sustain contractions

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Papillary layer of the dermis

Areolar (lose) tissue and contains capillary, lymphatic vessels and sensory neurons

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Reticular layer of the dermis

Lies deep to the papillary, consists of dense irregular connective tissues and bundles of collagen and elastic fibers

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4 phases of injury repair

inflammatory: bleeding, swelling redness and pain migratory: scab formation and migrating epithelial cells proliferation: fibroblasts repair tissue under the scab scarring: scab is shed epidermis is complete, fibroblasts create scar tissue

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Sensible perspiration

Fluid loss through active sweat glands (merocrine)

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Insensible perspiration

Evaporation through the stratum corneum

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Areolar tissue

A loose connective tissue that provides support but permits movement due to elastic fibers

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Adipose tissue

A loose connective tissue that is similar to areolar but adipocytes account for most of its volume. Provides padding, absorbed shocks, and acts as an insulator. Brown fa and white fat

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Reticular tissue

Loose connective tissue that provides a supporting framework. Found in the spleen, liver, bone and lymph nodes.

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Dense regular connective tissue

Collagen fibers that run parallel to each other, packed tightly and align with forces applied to the tissue: Tendons: attach muscle to bone Ligaments: attach bone to bone Aponeurosis: tendentious sheet

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Cartilage growth

Interstitial: enlarges the cartilage from within Appositional: adds new layers of cartilage to the surface

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Fibrocartilage

Extremely durable due to little ground substance and it's interwoven collagen fibers: Spinal vertebrae Pubic bones

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Mucus membrane

Line passageways and chambers that commute to the exterior

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Serous membrane

Line the sealed internal cavities of the trunk-not open to the exterior: Pleura Pericardium Peritoneum

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Cutaneous membrane

The skin that covers the body surface: Stratified Cubical Columnar

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Synovial membrane

Line joint cavity and produce synovial fluid.

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Connective tissue provides:

Strength ans stability Maintains relative internal position of organs Supplies route for distribution of blood, lymph and nerves

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3 types of muscle

Skeletal: striated, voluentary, multiple nucleus 

Cardiac: striated, 1-5 nuclei, involuntary

Smooth: Non-striated, spindle shaped, involuntary, 1 nucleus    

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Neuroglia 

Severalkids of supporting cels that provide:

Physical structure

Repair

Phagocytosis

Provide nutrients 

Regulate interstitial fluid 

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3 modes of gland secretion

Merocrine

Aprocrine

Holocrine 

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Merocrine glands

The product is released by exocytosis, this is the most common mode of exocrine secretion

 

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Apocrine glands

Involves loss of a portion of the cytoplasm

Example is mammary glands 

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Holocrine glands

The entire cell becomes packed and bursts, destroying the cell

Example is sebaceous glands in the hair follicules