Ch. 20 Unifying Concepts of Animal Function and Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 20 Unifying Concepts of Animal Function and Structure Deck (61):
1

What is structure always related to?

Function

2

Anatomy

Structure (size, shape, material)

3

Physiology

Function (how work together)

4

Division of Labor

All living organisms are a collection of specialized parts
- each part has specific tasks
- all components must cooperate to benefit the whole

5

What is the structural hierarchy?

1) Cell
2) Tissue
3) Organ
4) Organ System
5) Organism

6

Specialized Cell

All the same at one point but differentiation occurs when only certain genes are expressed and proteins made
- nerve, muscles, red blood cells

7

Tissue

Group of similar cells connected together to perform specific function

8

What are the types of tissue?

1) Epithelial
2) Connective
3) Muscle

9

Epithelial (Tissue)

Sheets of closely packed cells that cover body surfaces both inside/outside
- lines organs and passageways/tubes
- held down by basement membrane

10

How is epithelial tissue named?

# of cells and shape
- simple or stratified
- squamous, cuboidal, or columnar

11

What is the basement membrane?

Dense mat of fibrous proteins
- the extracellular matrix, consisting of a dense mat of proteins and sticky polysaccharids, that anchor an epithelium to underlying tissues

12

Connective (Tissue)

Specialized cells thru extracellular matrix forming web of fibers

13

What are the 6 types of connective tissue?

1) Loose Connective Tissue
2) Adipose
3) Blood
4) Fibrous Connective Tissue
5) Cartilage
6) Bone

14

Loose Connective Tissue

Loose web of fibers made of collagen (rope like protein) for binding/packing material
- holds organs down

15

Adipose

Pads, insulates, stores energy
- contains large fat droplet (swells w/ fat, shrinks w/o)

16

Blood

55% plasma 45% corpuscles (blood cells)
- transport materials, fight infection

17

Fibrous Connective Tissue

Densely packed bundle of collagen fibers
- ligaments and tendons

18

Cartilage

Collagen fibers covered in rubbery fibers

19

Bone

Living cells held in a rigid matrix of collagen fibers embedded in calcium
- living marrow and non living matrix of cells

20

Muscles (Tissue)

Bundles of long cells (muscle fibers)
- most common tissue

21

What are the types of muscle tissue?

1) Skeletal
2) Smooth
3) Cardiac
4) Nerve

22

Skeletal (muscle)

Attach to bones by tendons
- voluntary
- striated (light/dark bands)
- retract rapidly but fatigue quickly
- fixed number of skeletal muscle tissue

23

Smooth (muscle)

Lines the organs and passageways
- involuntary
- shaped like spindles
- slow contraction, slow fatigue

24

Cardiac (muscle)

Contractile tissue in heart
- looks skeletal, acts like smooth but branched cells

25

Nerve (muscle)

Coordinates bodily activities
- provides ability to respond to environment (send info)
- detects stimuli, sends message, determines response, directs behavior
- made of neurons

26

What are neurons?

Nerve cell
- fundamental structural and functional unit of the nervous system, specialized for carrying signals from one location in the body to another
- cell body, dendrites, axons
- sends electrochemical impulses

27

Organs

A structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions

28

What are the types of Organ Systems?

1) Digestive
2) Respiratory
3) Circulatory
4) Lymphatic
5) Immune
6) Excretory
7) Endocrine Gland
8) Reproductive
9) Nervous
10) Muscular
11) Skeletal
12) Integumentary

29

Digestive System

Ingests food, breaks down food, absorbs nutrients
- digestion mainly in stomach and small intestines
- large intestine absorbs water and compacts indigestible materials into feces
- live discharges bile, metabolic reactions, producing blood protein, remove toxins and worn out cells from blood

30

Respiratory System

Exchange gases (O2 and CO2) b/w internal and external environment
- air goes into mouth/nose -> larynx -> trachea -> bronchi -> lungs (reverse)

31

Circulatory System

Circulate blood thru out body, deliver oxygen/materials, dispose of waste

32

Lymphatic System

Returns lymph fluid that leaks out of blood vessels; fights infections
- the organ system thru which lymph circulates; includes lymph vessels, lymph nodes, spleen; helps remove toxins and pathogens from body and interstitial fluid, and returns fluid and solutes from the interstitial fluid to circulatory system

33

Immune System

Protects body by attacking foreign substances
- lymphocytes (manufacture antibodies)

34

Excretory System

Removes nitrogen from blood (cellular metabolism)
- kidneys regulate osmotic balance, proper pH
- urine -> ureter -> bladder -> urethra

35

Endocrine Gland

Glands + Hormones
- regulates growth (homeostasis)
- the organ system consisting of ductless glands that secrete hormones and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to the hormones; cooperates w/ nervous system in regulating body functions + maintaining homeostasis

36

Reproductive System

Creates new life.
- different by gender, can survive w/o
- preservation of species, not individual

37

Nervous System

Coordinates body activities; responds to internal and external stimuli

38

Muscular System

Locomotion (movement), protection, generate heat

39

Skeletal System

Provides support, protection, mineral storage, and corpuscles

40

Integumentary System

Skin, largest system
- protects from dehydration, infection, injury, temperature extremes

41

Organism

Living individual
- only survive w/ cooperative interaction b/w all parts

42

What are the 2 sides of epithelial tissue?

1) "Free surface"
2) Anchored by basement membrane

43

Mucous Membrane

Smooth, moist, epithelium that lines the digestive tract and air tubes leading to the lungs

44

Ligaments

Attach bone to muscle

45

Tendons

Attaches bones together

46

Dendrite

Conveys signals toward cell body

47

Axon

Transmits signals away from body (to neuron)

48

Cardiovascular System

A closed circulartory system w/ a heart and branching network of arteries, capillaries, and veins

49

Computed Tomography (CT)

A technology that uses a computer to create X-ray images of a series of sections thru the body
- HD video images of cross section or combined for 3D view
- detects b/w small differences of normal and abnormal tissues in organs (evaluate brain problems)

50

What are the three failures of X-Rays?

1) Soft tissue is not visible
2) Flat 2D image
3) Can cause cancer

51

How do X-Rays work?

High energy radiation hits the body and passes thru tissue easily. Those that it does, the shadow appears distinctly on the film paper so bones and tumors

52

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Imaging technology that uses magnetism and radio waves to induce hydrogen nuclei in water molecules to emit faint radio signals; a computer creates images of the body from the radio signals
- good for detecting problems in nervous tissue surrounding bone
- shows tissue b/c water is major component and bones don't have water

53

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Imaging technology that uses radioactively labeled biological molecules, such as glucose, to obtain info about metabolic processes at specific locations in the body; the labeled molecules are injected into the bloodstream and a PET scan for radioactive emissions determines which tissues have taken up the molecules
- insight into brain activity

54

Interstitial Fluid

An aqueous solution that surrounds body cells and thru which materials pass back and forth b/w the blood and body tissues
- fluid that bathes all of the cells

55

Homeostasis

The steady state of body functioning; a state of equilibrium characterized by a dynamic interplay b/w outside forces that tend to change an organism's internal environment and the internal control mechanisms that oppose such changes
- maintaining balance

56

Negative Feedback

A control mechanism in which a chemical reaction, metabolic pathway, or hormone-secreting gland is inhibited by the products of the reaction, pathway, or gland; as the concentration of the products builds up, the product molecules themselves inhibit the process that produced them
- prevent small changes from becoming too large

57

What must all organisms exchange with environment?

In: nutrients, oxygen, and water
Out: waster and carbon

58

What do all single celled and simple multicellular organisms have in common?

All cells are in direct contact with needs.
- diffusion occurs
- direct exchange
- surface area is almost equal to volume

59

How does complex multicellular organisms obtain nutrients if their cells not in contact with environment?

Specialized exchange structures b/c surface area is to volume is too small, so use internal surfaces, organs, tissues, organ system, and interstitial fluid.

60

What are the 3 requirements that must be met for site of exchange?

1) Extensive Surface Area
- more interstitial fluid is in contact w/ tissue
- folds, ridges, grooves, branching, projections
2) Must be thin
- diffusion can only travel a short distance
3) Moist
- so diffusion can occur

61

What are examples of homeostasis?

Temperature, pH, water concentration, salt concentration, oxygen/carbon dioxide concentration, nutrients and wastes