Flashcards in Ch. 20 Unifying Concepts of Animal Function and Structure Deck (61):
What is structure always related to?
Structure (size, shape, material)
Function (how work together)
Division of Labor
All living organisms are a collection of specialized parts
- each part has specific tasks
- all components must cooperate to benefit the whole
What is the structural hierarchy?
4) Organ System
All the same at one point but differentiation occurs when only certain genes are expressed and proteins made
- nerve, muscles, red blood cells
Group of similar cells connected together to perform specific function
What are the types of tissue?
Sheets of closely packed cells that cover body surfaces both inside/outside
- lines organs and passageways/tubes
- held down by basement membrane
How is epithelial tissue named?
# of cells and shape
- simple or stratified
- squamous, cuboidal, or columnar
What is the basement membrane?
Dense mat of fibrous proteins
- the extracellular matrix, consisting of a dense mat of proteins and sticky polysaccharids, that anchor an epithelium to underlying tissues
Specialized cells thru extracellular matrix forming web of fibers
What are the 6 types of connective tissue?
1) Loose Connective Tissue
4) Fibrous Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
Loose web of fibers made of collagen (rope like protein) for binding/packing material
- holds organs down
Pads, insulates, stores energy
- contains large fat droplet (swells w/ fat, shrinks w/o)
55% plasma 45% corpuscles (blood cells)
- transport materials, fight infection
Fibrous Connective Tissue
Densely packed bundle of collagen fibers
- ligaments and tendons
Collagen fibers covered in rubbery fibers
Living cells held in a rigid matrix of collagen fibers embedded in calcium
- living marrow and non living matrix of cells
Bundles of long cells (muscle fibers)
- most common tissue
What are the types of muscle tissue?
Attach to bones by tendons
- striated (light/dark bands)
- retract rapidly but fatigue quickly
- fixed number of skeletal muscle tissue
Lines the organs and passageways
- shaped like spindles
- slow contraction, slow fatigue
Contractile tissue in heart
- looks skeletal, acts like smooth but branched cells
Coordinates bodily activities
- provides ability to respond to environment (send info)
- detects stimuli, sends message, determines response, directs behavior
- made of neurons
What are neurons?
- fundamental structural and functional unit of the nervous system, specialized for carrying signals from one location in the body to another
- cell body, dendrites, axons
- sends electrochemical impulses
A structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions
What are the types of Organ Systems?
7) Endocrine Gland
Ingests food, breaks down food, absorbs nutrients
- digestion mainly in stomach and small intestines
- large intestine absorbs water and compacts indigestible materials into feces
- live discharges bile, metabolic reactions, producing blood protein, remove toxins and worn out cells from blood
Exchange gases (O2 and CO2) b/w internal and external environment
- air goes into mouth/nose -> larynx -> trachea -> bronchi -> lungs (reverse)
Circulate blood thru out body, deliver oxygen/materials, dispose of waste
Returns lymph fluid that leaks out of blood vessels; fights infections
- the organ system thru which lymph circulates; includes lymph vessels, lymph nodes, spleen; helps remove toxins and pathogens from body and interstitial fluid, and returns fluid and solutes from the interstitial fluid to circulatory system
Protects body by attacking foreign substances
- lymphocytes (manufacture antibodies)
Removes nitrogen from blood (cellular metabolism)
- kidneys regulate osmotic balance, proper pH
- urine -> ureter -> bladder -> urethra
Glands + Hormones
- regulates growth (homeostasis)
- the organ system consisting of ductless glands that secrete hormones and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to the hormones; cooperates w/ nervous system in regulating body functions + maintaining homeostasis
Creates new life.
- different by gender, can survive w/o
- preservation of species, not individual
Coordinates body activities; responds to internal and external stimuli
Locomotion (movement), protection, generate heat
Provides support, protection, mineral storage, and corpuscles
Skin, largest system
- protects from dehydration, infection, injury, temperature extremes
- only survive w/ cooperative interaction b/w all parts
What are the 2 sides of epithelial tissue?
1) "Free surface"
2) Anchored by basement membrane
Smooth, moist, epithelium that lines the digestive tract and air tubes leading to the lungs
Attach bone to muscle
Attaches bones together
Conveys signals toward cell body
Transmits signals away from body (to neuron)
A closed circulartory system w/ a heart and branching network of arteries, capillaries, and veins
Computed Tomography (CT)
A technology that uses a computer to create X-ray images of a series of sections thru the body
- HD video images of cross section or combined for 3D view
- detects b/w small differences of normal and abnormal tissues in organs (evaluate brain problems)
What are the three failures of X-Rays?
1) Soft tissue is not visible
2) Flat 2D image
3) Can cause cancer
How do X-Rays work?
High energy radiation hits the body and passes thru tissue easily. Those that it does, the shadow appears distinctly on the film paper so bones and tumors
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Imaging technology that uses magnetism and radio waves to induce hydrogen nuclei in water molecules to emit faint radio signals; a computer creates images of the body from the radio signals
- good for detecting problems in nervous tissue surrounding bone
- shows tissue b/c water is major component and bones don't have water
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Imaging technology that uses radioactively labeled biological molecules, such as glucose, to obtain info about metabolic processes at specific locations in the body; the labeled molecules are injected into the bloodstream and a PET scan for radioactive emissions determines which tissues have taken up the molecules
- insight into brain activity
An aqueous solution that surrounds body cells and thru which materials pass back and forth b/w the blood and body tissues
- fluid that bathes all of the cells
The steady state of body functioning; a state of equilibrium characterized by a dynamic interplay b/w outside forces that tend to change an organism's internal environment and the internal control mechanisms that oppose such changes
- maintaining balance
A control mechanism in which a chemical reaction, metabolic pathway, or hormone-secreting gland is inhibited by the products of the reaction, pathway, or gland; as the concentration of the products builds up, the product molecules themselves inhibit the process that produced them
- prevent small changes from becoming too large
What must all organisms exchange with environment?
In: nutrients, oxygen, and water
Out: waster and carbon
What do all single celled and simple multicellular organisms have in common?
All cells are in direct contact with needs.
- diffusion occurs
- direct exchange
- surface area is almost equal to volume
How does complex multicellular organisms obtain nutrients if their cells not in contact with environment?
Specialized exchange structures b/c surface area is to volume is too small, so use internal surfaces, organs, tissues, organ system, and interstitial fluid.
What are the 3 requirements that must be met for site of exchange?
1) Extensive Surface Area
- more interstitial fluid is in contact w/ tissue
- folds, ridges, grooves, branching, projections
2) Must be thin
- diffusion can only travel a short distance
- so diffusion can occur