Ch 22 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Flashcards Preview

Sonography > Ch 22 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 22 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Deck (34):
1

benign thyroid neoplasm characterized by complete fibrous encapsulation

adenoma

2

rare, undifferentiated carcinoma occurring in middle age

anaplastic carcinoma

3

remnant of embryonic development that appears as a cyst in the neck

branchial cleft cyst

4

a thyroid hormone that is important for maintaining a dense, strong bone matrix and regulating the blood calcium level

calcitonin

5

refers to a normal functioning thyroid gland

euthyroid

6

use of a fine-gauge needle to obtain cells from a mass

fine-needle aspiration

7

occurs as a solitary malignant mass within the thyroid gland

follicular carcinoma

8

enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be focal or diffuse; multiple nodules may be present

goiter

9

autoimmune disorder characterized by a diffuse toxic goiter, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), and cutaneous manifestations

Graves’ disease

10

chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland caused by the formation of antibodies against normal thyroid tissue

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

11

disorder associated with elevated serum calcium level, usually caused by a benign parathyroid adenoma

hyperparathyroidism

12

oversecretion of thyroid hormones

hyperthyroidism

13

low phosphatase level, which can be seen with hyperparathyroidism

hypophosphatasia

14

undersecretion of thyroid hormones

hypothyroidism

15

small piece of thyroid tissue that connects the right and left lobes of the gland

isthmus

16

wedge-shaped muscle posterior to the thyroid lobes

longus colli muscle

17

disorder characterized by localized or generalized enlargement of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels

lymphadenopathy

18

neoplastic growth that accounts for 10% of thyroid malignancies

medullary carcinoma

19

tiny echogenic foci within a nodule that may or may not shadow

microcalcifications

20

nodular enlargement of the thyroid associated with hyperthyroidism

multinodular goiter

21

degenerative nodules within the thyroid

nodular hyperplasia

22

most common form of thyroid malignancy

papillary carcinoma

23

a hormone that is secreted by the parathyroid glands, which regulate serum calcium levels

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

24

enlargement of multiple parathyroid glands

parathyroid hyperplasia

25

oversecretion of parathyroid hormone, usually from a parathyroid adenoma

primary hyperparathyroidism

26

present in a small percentage of patients; extends superiorly from the isthmus

pyramidal lobe

27

enlargement of parathyroid glands in patients with renal failure or vitamin D deficiency

secondary hyperparathyroidism

28

laboratory value that is elevated with hyperparathyroidism

serum calcium

29

large muscles anterolateral to the thyroid

sternocleidomastoid muscles

30

group of three muscles (sternothyroid, sternohyoid, and omohyoid) that lie anterior to the thyroid

strap muscles

31

viral infection of the thyroid that causes inflammation

subacute (de Quervain’s) thyroiditis

32

congenital anomalies that present in midline of the neck anterior to the trachea

thyroglossal duct cysts

33

inflammation of the thyroid

thyroiditis

34

a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)