Urinary System Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urinary System Chapter 14 Deck (38):
1

The urinary system has two principal functions: excreting _____ and regulating the composition of _____.

wastes, blood

2

the right kidney lies slightly _____ than the left kidney because the large right lobe of the _____ pushes it ______.

Lower, liver, inferiorly

3

the kidneys move with respiration; on deep inspiration, both kidneys move ______ approximately 1 inch.

downward

4

Within the hilus of the kidney are other _____ structures, a ureter, and the _______

vascular, lymphatics

5

A fibrous capsule called the ______ surrounds the kidney.

true capsule

6

Outside of this fibrous capsule is a covering of _______

perinephric fat

7

The _____ fascia surrounds the perinephric fat and encloses the kidneys and adrenal glands.

perinephric

8

The renal fascia, known as ______fascia, surrounds the true capsule and perinephric fat.

Gerota's

9

The medullary substance consists of a series of striated conical masses, called the renal _____

pyramids

10

A nephron consists of two main structures, a renal _____ and a renal _____

corpuscle, tubule

11

Nephrons ____ the blood and produce _____

blood, urine

12

The renal corpusle consists of a network of capillaries, called the _____, which is surrounded by a cuplike structure known as ________

glomerulus, Bowman's capsule

13

Blood flow into the glomerulus through a small ______ arteriole and leaves the golmerulus through a(n) _______ arteriole.

afferent, efferent

14

There are three constrictions along the ureter's course (1) _______,(2) ______,and (3) ________

1. Where the ureter leaves the renal pelvis,
2. Where it is kinked as it crosses the pelvic brim
3. where it pierces the bladder wall

15

The main renal artery is a lateral branch of the aorta and arises just inferior to the ________ artery.

superior mesenteric

16

The renal vein drains into the ______ of the inferior vena cava.

lateral wall

17

The urinary system is located posterior to the peritoneum lining and the abdominal cavity in an area called the ______

retroperitoneum

18

The kidneys adjust the amounts of _____ and ______ leaving the body so that these equal the amounts of substances entering the body.

water. electrolytes

19

The principle metabolic waste products are ____, _____ and nitrogenous wastes.

water, carbon dioxide

20

Both urea and uric acid are carried away from the liver into the kidneys by the ______ system.

vascular

21

The presence of an acute infection causes _____, which is ____ in the urine; pyuria means there is _____ in the urine.

hematuria, RBC, pus

22

The pH refers to the strength of the urine as a partly ____ or _____ solution.

acidic, alkaline

23

The ________ is the measurement of the kidney's ability to concentrate urine.

specific gravity

24

The specific gravity is especially ______ in cases of renal failure, glomerular nephritis, and pyelonephritis

low

25

A decreased ______ occurs with acute hemorrhagic processes secondary to disease or blunt trauma.

hematocrit

26

Impairment of renal function and increased protein catabolism results in BUN _____ that is relative to the degree of renal impairment and rate of urea nitrogen excreted by the kidneys.

elevation

27

The renal parenchyma surrounds the fatty central renal sinus, which contains these five structures:

calyces, infundibula, pelvis, vessels, and lymphatics

28

Dilation of the collecting system has also been noted in ____ patients, especially the right kidney.

pregnant

29

The ________ and _______ arteries are best demonstrated as intense specular echos in cross section or oblique section at the corticomedullary junction.

arcuate arteries, interlobar

30

The ______is the area from the renal sinus to the outer renal surface.

parenchyma

31

The _____ generally is echo producing, whereas the meduallary pyramids are ______

cortex, hypoechoic

32

The cortex and medullary pyramids are separated from each other by bands of cortical tissue, called ________, that extend inward to the renal sinus.

column's of Bertin

33

The ____ lie posterior to the renal arteries and should be identified by their lack of pulsations and absence of Doppler flow.

Crura

34

The ____ of the pyramids points towards the sinus, and the _____ lies adjacent to the renal cortex.

Apex, base

35

The ________ is a cortical bulge that occurs on the lateral border of the kidney, typically more on the left side

dromedary hump

36

A(n) _______ is a triangular, echogenic area in the upper pole of the renal parenchyma that can be seen during normal scanning.

junctional parenchymal defect

37

In a patient with a(n) _______, there is fusion of the kidneys during fetal development that almost invariably involves the _____ poles.

horseshoe kidney, lower

38

A cystlike enlargment of the lower end of the ureter is called _______

ureterocele