Flashcards in Urinary System Chapter 14 Deck (38):
The urinary system has two principal functions: excreting _____ and regulating the composition of _____.
the right kidney lies slightly _____ than the left kidney because the large right lobe of the _____ pushes it ______.
Lower, liver, inferiorly
the kidneys move with respiration; on deep inspiration, both kidneys move ______ approximately 1 inch.
Within the hilus of the kidney are other _____ structures, a ureter, and the _______
A fibrous capsule called the ______ surrounds the kidney.
Outside of this fibrous capsule is a covering of _______
The _____ fascia surrounds the perinephric fat and encloses the kidneys and adrenal glands.
The renal fascia, known as ______fascia, surrounds the true capsule and perinephric fat.
The medullary substance consists of a series of striated conical masses, called the renal _____
A nephron consists of two main structures, a renal _____ and a renal _____
Nephrons ____ the blood and produce _____
The renal corpusle consists of a network of capillaries, called the _____, which is surrounded by a cuplike structure known as ________
glomerulus, Bowman's capsule
Blood flow into the glomerulus through a small ______ arteriole and leaves the golmerulus through a(n) _______ arteriole.
There are three constrictions along the ureter's course (1) _______,(2) ______,and (3) ________
1. Where the ureter leaves the renal pelvis,
2. Where it is kinked as it crosses the pelvic brim
3. where it pierces the bladder wall
The main renal artery is a lateral branch of the aorta and arises just inferior to the ________ artery.
The renal vein drains into the ______ of the inferior vena cava.
The urinary system is located posterior to the peritoneum lining and the abdominal cavity in an area called the ______
The kidneys adjust the amounts of _____ and ______ leaving the body so that these equal the amounts of substances entering the body.
The principle metabolic waste products are ____, _____ and nitrogenous wastes.
water, carbon dioxide
Both urea and uric acid are carried away from the liver into the kidneys by the ______ system.
The presence of an acute infection causes _____, which is ____ in the urine; pyuria means there is _____ in the urine.
hematuria, RBC, pus
The pH refers to the strength of the urine as a partly ____ or _____ solution.
The ________ is the measurement of the kidney's ability to concentrate urine.
The specific gravity is especially ______ in cases of renal failure, glomerular nephritis, and pyelonephritis
A decreased ______ occurs with acute hemorrhagic processes secondary to disease or blunt trauma.
Impairment of renal function and increased protein catabolism results in BUN _____ that is relative to the degree of renal impairment and rate of urea nitrogen excreted by the kidneys.
The renal parenchyma surrounds the fatty central renal sinus, which contains these five structures:
calyces, infundibula, pelvis, vessels, and lymphatics
Dilation of the collecting system has also been noted in ____ patients, especially the right kidney.
The ________ and _______ arteries are best demonstrated as intense specular echos in cross section or oblique section at the corticomedullary junction.
arcuate arteries, interlobar
The ______is the area from the renal sinus to the outer renal surface.
The _____ generally is echo producing, whereas the meduallary pyramids are ______
The cortex and medullary pyramids are separated from each other by bands of cortical tissue, called ________, that extend inward to the renal sinus.
column's of Bertin
The ____ lie posterior to the renal arteries and should be identified by their lack of pulsations and absence of Doppler flow.
The ____ of the pyramids points towards the sinus, and the _____ lies adjacent to the renal cortex.
The ________ is a cortical bulge that occurs on the lateral border of the kidney, typically more on the left side
A(n) _______ is a triangular, echogenic area in the upper pole of the renal parenchyma that can be seen during normal scanning.
junctional parenchymal defect
In a patient with a(n) _______, there is fusion of the kidneys during fetal development that almost invariably involves the _____ poles.
horseshoe kidney, lower