Flashcards in Ch 22 Thyroid- Fill in the Blank Deck (27):
The thyroid straddles the trachea anteriorly, whereas the paired lobes extend on either side bounded laterally by the _______ arteries and _______ veins.
Along the anterior surface of the thyroid gland lie the _____ muscles, including the sternothyroid, omohyoid, sternohyoid, and sternocleidomastoid muscles.
The parathyroid glands are normally located on the _______ surface of the thyroid gland.
The parathyroid glands are the ________ organs in the body.
The parathyroid glands produce _________ and monitor the serum calcium feedback mechanism.
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
When the serum calcium levels _______, the parathyroid glands are stimulated to release PTH.
PTH acts on ______, _______, and intestine to enhance calcium absorption.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by ________, hypercalciuria, and low serum levels of phosphate.
Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when increased amounts of PTH are produced by a(n) ________, primary hyperplasia, or, rarely, carcinoma located in the parathyroid gland.
A chronic hypocalcemia caused by renal failure, vitamin D deficiency (rickets), or malabsorption syndrome is ________ hyperparathyrodism.
The thyroid gland is the part of the endocrine system that maintains body _________, __________, and _______ through the synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones.
metabolism, growth, development
These hormones include triiodothyronine (_____), thyroxine (____), and ________.
T3, T4, calcitonin
The mechanism for producing thyroid hormones _______ metabolism.
When the body needs thyroid hormone, it is released into the bloodstream by the action of thyrotropin, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (______), which is produced by the pituitary gland.
The secretion of TSH is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing factor, which is produced by the ________.
The concentration of calcium in the blood is decreased by _________, which first acts on the bone to inhibit its breakdown.
Low intake of iodine (goiter) in the body may cause either ________, or the inability of the thyroid to produce the proper amount of thyroid hormone, or a problem in the pituitary gland that does not control the thyroid production.
The metabolic rate is dramatically increased _________, clinical signs include weight loss, increased appetite, high degree nervous energy, tremor, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, and palpations, and many patients show signs of exothalmos (protruding eyes).
How the thyroid is functioning is evaluated by __________.
An enlargement of the thyroid gland is a(n) ________, which is often visible on the anterior neck.
One of the most common forms of thyroid disease is ___________.
_________ is characterized by these findings: hypermetabolism, diffuse toxic goiter, exothalmos (inflammatory infiltration of the orbital tissue resulting in proptosis, or bulging of the eyes), and cutaneous manifestations (thickening of the dermis of the pretibial areas and the dorsum of the feet).
A benign thyroid neoplasm characterized by complete fibrous encapsulation is a(n) ________.
The most common of the thyroid malignancies is _________ of the thyroid and is the preponderant cause of thyroid cancer in children.
The normal thyroid gland has fine __________ echotexture that is more echogenic than the surrounding muscle structure.
A normal lymph node is oval in shape with a(n) __________ texture with a central core echo complex.