Ch 21 Breast Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 21 Breast Deck (47):
1

glandular (milk-producing) component of the breast lobule.

acinus (acini)

2

overgrowth of the stromal and epithelial elements of the acini within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU) of the breast; a component of a fibrocystic condition

adenosis

3

without echoes

anechoic

4

plane of imaging on ultrasound of the breast that is perpendicular to the radial plane of imaging.

antiradial

5

the pigmented skin surrounding the breast nipple

areola

6

without symptoms

asymptomatic

7

abnormal proliferation of cells with atypical features involving the TDLU, with an increased likelihood of evolving into breast cancer

atypical hyperplasia

8

armpit

axilla

9

differentiated apocrine sweat gland with the functional purpose of secreting milk during lactation

breast

10

involves two main types of cells: ductal and lobular

breast cancer

11

screening for breast cancer involves annual screening mammography (starting at age 40), monthly breast self-examination (BSE), and regular clinical breast examination (CBE)

breast cancer screening

12

trademark system created by the American College of Radiology (ACR) to standardize mammographic reporting terminology; to categorize breast abnormalities according to the level of suspicion for malignancy; and to facilitate outcome monitoring

breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS)

13

part of breast cancer screening; every woman is encouraged to perform breast self-examination monthly starting at age 20; BSE is usually best performed at the end of menses

breast self-examination

14

examination of the breast by a health care provider as part of breast cancer screening

clinical breast examination

15

connective tissue septa that connect perpendicularly to the breast lobules and extend out to the skin; considered the fibrous “skeleton” supporting the breast glandular tissue

Cooper’s ligaments

16

fluid-filled sac of variable size

cyst

17

common diagnostic and interventional breast procedure that involves placing a needle through the skin of the breast into a cystic mass and pulling fluid out of the cyst through the needle.

cyst aspiration

18

also called consultative, workup, or problem-solving mammography or breast imaging; this type of breast imaging examination is more intensive than routine screening mammography

diagnostic breast imaging

19

most common benign solid tumor of the breast, consisting predominantly of fibrous and epithelial (adenomatous) tissue elements.

fibroadenoma

20

also called fibrocystic change or fibrocystic breast, this condition represents many different tissue processes within the breast that are all basically normal processes, which in some patients become exaggerated to the point of raising concern for breast cancer.

fibrocystic condition

21

refers to vibrations produced by phonation and felt through the chest wall during palpation; a technique used in conjunction with power Doppler to identify the margins of a lesion

fremitus

22

hypertrophy of residual ductal elements that persist behind the nipple in the male

gynecomastia

23

echo texture that is more echogenic than the surrounding tissue

hyperechoic

24

having relatively weak echoes.

hypoechoic

25

cancer of the ductal epithelium; most common general category of breast cancer, accounting for approximately 85% of all breast cancers

infiltrating (invasive) ductal carcinoma

26

cancer of the lobular epithelium of the breast, arises at the level of the TDLU; accounts for 12% to 15% of all breast cancers

infiltrating (invasive) lobular carcinoma (ILC)

27

echo texture that resembles the surrounding tissue. In the breast, isoechoic masses can be difficult to identify

isoechoic

28

near the chest wall (thorax)

juxtathoracic

29

the middle of three layers of breast tissue recognized on breast ultrasound between the skin and the chest wall that contains the ductal, glandular, and stromal portions of the breast

mammary layer

30

breast cancer that occurs in different quadrants of the breast at least 5 cm apart.

multicentric breast cancer

31

cannot be felt on clinical examination; a nonpalpable breast mass is one that is usually identified on screening mammogram and is too small to be felt as a breast lump on BSE or CBE

nonpalpable

32

surface erosion of the nipple (reddened area with flaking and crusting) that results from direct invasion of the skin of the nipple by underlying breast cancer

Paget’s disease

33

can be felt on clinical examination; a palpable breast lump is one that is identified on CBE or BSE

palpable

34

French term that means skin of the orange; descriptive term for skin thickening of one breast that, on clinical breast examination, resembles the skin of an orange.

peau d’orange

35

plane of imaging on ultrasound of the breast

radial

36

deepest of the three layers of the breast noted on breast ultrasound

retromammary layer

37

a normal extension of breast tissue into the axillary or armpit region

tail of Spence

38

smallest functional portion of the breast involving the terminal duct and its associated lobule, containing at least one acinus

terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU)

39

most superficial of the three layers of the breast identified on breast ultrasound

subcutaneous layer

40

represents the first lymph node along the axillary node chain

sentinel node

41

finger-like extension of a malignant tumor

spiculation

42

Form of fibrocystic change in which the epithelial cells of the acini undergo alteration

aporine metaplasia

43

shows some, but not all, of the features of lobular carcinoma in situ

atypical lobular hyperplasia

44

the pathologist recognizes some, but not all, of the features of ductal carcinoma in situ

atypical ductal hyperplasia

45

neither considered a true cancer nor treated as such

lobular carcinoma in situ

46

term preferred by many authers to replace LCIS and atypical hyperplasia

lobular neoplasia

47

breast cancer occurring in different quadrants of the breast at least 5 cm apart

multicentric breast cancer