Flashcards in Chapter 41 Pathology of the Uterus Deck (22):
The most common finding, seen frequently in middle aged woman, is the presence of ______________.
Clinical findings of irregular bleeding may be the result of _______, a condition that arises from the hyperplastic protrusion of the eipthelium of the endocervix or ectocervix.
An acquired condition with obstruction of the cervical canal at the internal or external os resulting from radiation therapy, previous cone biopsy, postmenopausal cervical atrophy, chronic infection, laser surgery, or cryosurgery, or cervical carcinoma is __________.
A vaginal _______ is seen in hysterectomy patients after surgery.
The most common cystic lesion of the vagina is the _________ cyst; it usually is found incidentally during sonographic examination.
The most common congenital abnormality of the female genital tract is a(n) ___________, resulting in obstruction.
The benign tumor called a _______ is the most common gynecologic tumor, occurring in approximately 20% to 30% of women over the age of 30 with a higher incidence in African American women.
Myomas are ________ dependent and may increase in size during pregnancy, although about one half of all myomas show little change during pregnancy.
Leiomyomas are characterized as ________ (displacing or distorting the endometrial cavity with subsequent irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding), _________(confined to the myometrium, the lost common type), or ________ (projecting from the peritoneal surface of the uterus, sometimes becoming pedunculated and appearing as extrauterine masses).
submucosal, intramural, subserosal
________ myomas may erode into the endometrial cavity and cause irregular or heavy bleeding, which may lead to anemia.
The earliest sonographic findings of _______ shows uterine enlargement with a heterogenous texture and contour distortion along the interface between the uterus and the bladder.
The most common cause of uterine calcification is ______ ; a less common cause is _______ artery calcification in the periphery of the uterus.
The ectopic occurrence of nests of endometrial tissue within the myometrium is __________ and is more extensive in the the posterior wall.
Uterine ______malformations (AVMs) consist of a vascular plexus of arteries and veins without an intervening capillary network.
The most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women that develops from unopposed estrogen stimulation is ________
Ideally women using _____hormones should be studied at the beginning or end of her hormone cycle, when the endometrium is theoretically at its thinnest.
Sonographically, _______ appear toward the end of the luteal phase and are represented by a hyopechoic region within the hyperechoic endometrium.
_________ most often occurs in association with PID, in the postpartum state, or following instrumentation invasion.
Intrauterine ______ (endometrial adhesions, Asherman's syndrome) are found in women with post-traumatic or postsurgical histories, including uterine curettage.
The earliest change associated with ________ is a thickened endometrium; it is also associated with endometrial hypertrophy and polyps.
Sonogrpahically, a thickened endometrium (greater than 4 to 5mm) must be considered _______ until proved otherwise.