Chapter 49 Second and Third Trimester Flashcards Preview

Sonography > Chapter 49 Second and Third Trimester > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 49 Second and Third Trimester Deck (28):
1

Fetal anatomy can accurately be assessed after _____ weeks.

18

2

Most common fetal position where back of fetal head to maternal pelvis.

vertex/cephalic

3

When the lower extremities or buttocks are found to be in the lower uterine segment and the head is visualized in the uterine fundus.

Breech

4

Fetus laying perpendicular to maternal long axis.

transverse

5

By the ____ week of gestation, the fetal bones ossify.

12

6

Normal fetal brain parenchyma appears ________ because of the small size reflectors and high water content in the tissue. The sulcus and gyrus are more echogenic.

hypoechoic

7

The _______ tissue within the lateral ventricles produces the CSF. This sponge like material is echogenic and is very prominent in early pregnancy.

choroid plexus

8

From the lateral ventricles, the fluid travels to the third ventricle through the ________ . From the third ventricle, the fluid travels though the _________ to the forth ventricle.

foramen of Monro, aquaduct of Sylvius

9

The normal atrium measures ______. If the atrium measures greater than ______, this warrants serial imaging and further evaluation.

6.5mm, 10mm

10

The ______ is located in the back of the cerebral peduncles within the posterior fossa. The cerebellar hemispheres are joined together by the ________.

cerebellum, cerebellar vermis

11

The ________ is the sonographic term that describes the Arnold-chiari malformation in which the cerebellum may be small or displaced downward into the foramen magnum.

banana sign

12

The ________ (a posterior fossa cistern filled with CSF) lies directly behind the cerebellum.

cisterna magna

13

The normal cisterna magna measures ______, with an average size of ______.

3-11 mm, 5-6 mm

14

The second trimester, the thickness of the _________ is measured in a plane containing the cavum septi pellucidi, the cerebellum, and the cisterna magna.

nuchal skin fold

15

values of skin thickness of _______ up to 20 weeks GA are normal.

5mm or less

16

Fetuses with thickened nuchal skin are at increased risk for _______.

aneuploidy

17

The apex of the fetal heart is directed toward the _____ anterior chest with the right ventricle closest to the chest wall and the left atrium closest to the spine.

left

18

Normal heart rhythm and rate of _____ beat per min.

120 to 160

19

Stomach becomes apparent as early as the _____ week and full stomach should be seen in all fetuses beyond the ____ week of gestation

11th, 16th

20

Beyond ____ weeks gestation, small bowel may be differentiated from large bowel.

20

21

The large bowel typically contains mesconium particles and may measure up to _____ in the perterm fetus.

20 mm

22

The kidneys are apparent as early as the ____ week of pregnancy.

13th

23

A renal pelvis greater that ____ beyond 30 weeks GA is considered abnormal.

10mm

24

The adrenals are seen as early as the _____ week of pregnancy and by _____ weeks assume a rice-grain appearance.

20th, 23th

25

Gender may be seen as early as _____ and become clear by the ______ week.

12-16, 20-22nd

26

The umbilical vein transports oxygenated blood from the _______ where as the paired umbilical arteries return deoxygnated blood from the iliac arteries of the fetus to the placenta for purification.

placenta

27

Amniotic fluid increases until the ____ week and then slowly diminishes.

34th

28

Normal cervix is ____ or longer.

3cm