Chapter 58 Fetal Face and Neck Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 58 Fetal Face and Neck Deck (34):
1

Congenital anomalies of the face affect 1 in ____ births.

600

2

The nasal pits are formed as the surface ______ thickens into the nasal _____ on each side of the frontal nasal prominence; as these plaecodes invaginate, the nasal pits are formed.

ectoderm, placodes

3

Off-axis, or nonmidline, encephaloceles have also been reported with _________.

amniotic band syndrome

4

premature closure of any or all six of the cranial sutures

craniosynostosis

5

Unusually misshapen skull with a clover-leaf appearance in the anterior view

Kleeblattschadal

6

Clover leaf skull has been associated with numerous skeletal dysplasias (most notably, _________) and ________

thanatophoric dysplasia , ventricomegaly

7

Premature closure of the metopic suture may cause the forehead to have an elongated tall appearance in the sagittal plane and appear triangular shaped in the axial plane.

trigonocephaly

8

obsurved in a fetus with a lemon-shaped skull (from spina bifida) or with skeletal dysplasias.

frontal bossing

9

with depressed or absent nasal bridge, is underdevelopment of the middle structures of the face.

Midface hypoplasia or maxillary hypoplasisa

10

median cleft face syndrome consisting of a range of midline facial defects involving the eyes, forehead, and nose.

Frontal dysplasia

11

Frontal dysplasia abnormalities include...

ocular hypertelorism, a variable bifid nose, a broad nasal bridge, a midline defect of the frontal bone, and extension of the frontal hairline to form a widow's peak.

12

The optimal gest age for measurements of fetal NT is _____ weeks of gest.

11weeks-13 weeks 6 days

13

Fetal crown-rump should be within the range of ______ mm

45-84

14

A NT measurement greater than ____ mm is abnormal

3

15

enlarged tongue

macroglassia

16

Congenital overgrowth of tissues

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

17

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome commonly co-exists with ...

omphalocele, macroglossia and vescoromegaly, and organomegaly

18

small chin

micrognathia

19

Micrognathia is associated with many conditions that can be subdivided into three groups of anomalies:

- Chromosome anomalies (trisomy 18 and triploidy)
- skeletal dysplasias
- Primary mandibular disorders (Pierre Robin syndrome and Trecher Collins syndrome)

20

Ear malformation may be observed in _________

Goldenbar's syndrome

21

absent eyes

anophalmia

22

small ears

Robert's syndrome

23

inadequate development of the ear

Treacher Collins Syndrome

24

Periorbital masses.....

lacimal duct cysts (dacryocystoceles), dermoids, and hemangiomas.

25

abnormal protrusion of the eye

exophthalmia

26

Hypotelerism is associated with several syndromes and other anomalies, including ________, microcephaly, craniosynostoses, and __________.

holoprosencephaly, phenylketonuria (PKU)

27

_________ is found im fetuses exposed to phenytomin (Dilantin)

hypertelorism

28

Evaluation of the nasal triad should assess...

- nostril symmetry -nasal septum integrity, and -continuity of the upper lip, to exclude cleft lip and palate.

29

1 per ____ births in Native Americans are affected by cleft palate.

250

30

Cleft palate occurs when the _________ fail to fuse at the midline.

lateral palatine processes

31

Teratoma located in the oropharynx. These masses may be highly complex and contain solid, cystic, or calcified components.

epignathus

32

Results from the malformation of the lymphatic system that leads to single or multilocuated lymph-filled cavities around the neck.

cystic hygroma

33

The differential considerations for cystic hygromas include....

meningomyelocele, encephalocele, nuchal edema, brachial cleft cyst, cystic teratoma, hernagioma, and thyoglossal duct cyst.

34

Neck teratomas are usually _______ and located _______. May have complex sonographic patterns

unilateral, anteriorly