Flashcards in Ch 3 Deck (26):
What is the central nervous system composed of ?
Brain and spinal cord
-central nervous system allows you to move and sends signals through the body to the brain.
Explain how behavioral geneticists determine the individual contribution of genetics and environment to human traits
They do this by taking two twins with the same DNA and putting them into two different environments to see if having them in two different environments causes a change
What's the difference between sympathetic and parasympathetic systems ?
Sympathetic is fight or flight. Where you are aroused and your heart accelerates and you do anything you can to survive.
-parasympathetic is rest and dijest when you are calm
What are the different parts of a neuron?
-dendrites: branches that receive messages from other neurons and environment
-cell body: contains DNA
-axon: passes messages away from cell body to other neurons.
-myelin sheath: fatty insulation around the axon.
What's the difference between sensory neurons and motor neurons ?
Sensory neurons = sensation; take info form the world
Motor neurons take action
What's an inter neuron?
Transmits impulses from to other neurons
What is an action potential?
An electrical impulse that travels down the axon
How do neurons communicate ?
1. Neuron receives signals through dendrites.
2. Signal is transmitted to other cells through synapse
3. Threshold (-60MV): the action potential starts moving.
4. The AP travels down axon to terminals
5. The neurotransmitter is released
What's a synapse ?
Gap between sending and receiving neurons
What's a neurotransmitter ?
Messenger chemicals that cross the synapse
What's synaptic reuptake ?
It's the recycling of neurotransmitters. Nts are taken back up to be reused by sending neuron
How does cocaine affect the reuptake ?
Cocaine increases dopamine which blocks the dopamine transmitter therefor you get a flood of dopamine
What does the SSRI anti-depressant medication do ?
The SSRI stands for Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitor which inhibits the reuptake of Seratonin selectively.
What is multiple sclerosis ?
A disease of myelination that affects the central nervous system to send signals.
T-cells attack myelin which affects the communication.
Symptoms fatigue loss of
Movement memory loss
What is the function of hippocampus ?
For patient H.M. They did brain surgery to control his seizures and removed his hippocampus which resulted in amnesia.
What's the function of pons and the medulla ?
Functions : heartbeat and breathing
Damage: paralysis, coma and death
Ex Christopher Reeve which was an actor who fell off a horse and broke his neck and became paralyzed
What's the function of the cerebellum?
-balance and posture
-coordination of voluntary movement such as play a sport
What's the function of hypothalamus ?
Bodily maintained (homeostasis); hormones.
What's the amygalda?
Defensive emotions(fear, aggression)
What's the limbus system responsible for ?
Emotion and memory.
-includes hippocampus, hypothalamus , and amygalda
What are the 4 corticol lobes ?
Frontal lobe: responsible for higher level thinking. Language;movement;planning and decision making
-parietal lobe: body sensation
-temporal: hearing : memory
What's the difference between the left and right hemisphere ?
-thoughts and logic
-language: words and grammar
-pieces and details
-feelings and intuition
-wholes, including self
what are some examples of neurotransmitters ?
Seratonin: affects mood hunger and wakefullness. If imbalanced causes depression.
-dopamine: influences movement, attention and reward. If imbalanced can cause schizophrenia and ADHD
GABBA: inhibitory sleep. If imbalanced can cause anxiety and epilepsy
-glutamate: excitatory. If imbalanced can cause migraines and seizures
Compare and contrast the different types of brain scans
Computerized tomography(CT scan): imagining technique where computer coordinates and integrates multiple x-rays of a given area.
-positron emission tomography(PET): injecting individuals with mildly radioactive substance and monitoring changes in bloody looks to different areas in brain. Just an image
-electroencephalography(EEG): recording electrical activity of the brain. Brainwaves
-functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI):Magnetic fields used to produce picture that shows changes in metabolic activity over time. Shows where scirocco is taking place in brain
Identify some of the major glands ?
-pituitary gland: secretes a # of key hormones which directs activity of other glands in endocrine system
-thyroid: secretes hormones that regulate growth, metabolism and appetite
-adrenal: sits atop of kidneys and secretes hormones involved in stress response