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Flashcards in Ch 4 Deck (29):

What are the altered states of consciousness ?

-spontaneous: dreaming
-physiologically: drugs, anesthesia
-psychological-induced: hypnosis, mediation, trance


What is hypnosis? Benefits? Limitations ?

A state of focused concentration and increased suggestibility.
-willingness to participate.
Benefits: pain relief
-reducing obesity,anxiety,hypertension
-improving concentration and performance.
People see it as entertainment but it isn't


What is meditation? Benefits ?

Focusing on a single target (breathing, noise) to increase awareness of the moment.
-reduces blood pressure, stress management , sleep quality, treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, and pain management.


What do we mean by altered states of consciousness? Some examples

Having different patterns in waking activity.
Ex. Comatose: unconscious
-persistent begat stove state (PVS): you blink, yawn, moan have normal sleep waves but not conscious
-minimally conscious stage(MCS): people can smile, cry, follow with gaze.


Define consciousness

Wakefullness, self-awareness, an autobiography or life narrative.
-"awareness of ourselves and the outside world"


Explain the class video on hypnotic dissociation and pain relief.

Hypnosis is used to manage pain relief.
-perceptions of pain is reassigned
-reassigning priorities, they make ou focus about other things rather than the pain


Explain the "dual track" mind ?

We have a conscious track and an unconscious track.
•Conscious track: deliberate actions we know we are doing
•unconscious track: automatic actions , often without awareness
10% of our mind is conciliatory while 90% is unconscious.
Iceberg analogy Frued


What is the difference between selective attention and inattention?

-Selective attention: you are choosing to pay attention to that object
-Inattetion: Things around you that you are aware of but choose not to pay attention to them


explain the sleep wake cycle

Circadian rythm(biological rythym that takes place every 24 hrs) we sleep at night time and are awake during the day. Hypothalamus contains biological clock of the body. Pineal gland releases melatonin which helps us sleep.


Mention the different NREM stages. (brain waves, muscle tone, eye movements)

Stage 1: we drift off to sleep. slowdown in rate of respiration and heartbeat. Also decrease in muscle tension and body temp. Alpha and theta waves.
Stage 2:Body goes into deep relaxation. sleep spindles.
Stage 3 and 4: Deep sleep. Delta waves. heart rate and respiration slow.


What occurs during REM sleep. (brain waves, muscle tone, eye movements)

Dreaming occurs in REM sleep. there are rapid eye movements. high brain activity but no movement.


What are some sleep phenomena(parasomnias)?

-Sleep walking and talking: often have eyes opens. occurs during slow sleep waves.
-night terrors: occurs during NREM sleep. sense of panic along with screams.


What are some sleep disorders?

-Insomnia: constant difficulty to go to sleep or stay asleep.
-Narcolepsy: Random daytime sleep attacks
-Sleep apnea: repeated awakening after breathing stops.


Compare the evolutionary and cognitive theories of why we sleep?

-Evolutionary theory:we need sleep in order to function. we sleep in safe places to reduce chance of harm
-Cognitive theory:sleep is important for our memory and function formation


What are the effects of sleep deprivation?

decreased levels of alertness and mental efficiency. Also depression like symptoms. Also associated with obesity, increased blood presssure and levels of stress.


Explain some features of sleep

Stream of images, actions, and feelings. Recent, frequent, or traumatic experiences.


What are the different perspectives on why we dream?

-Psychodynamic: Freud believed that dreams had unconscious meaning. The manifest content is actual dream while the latent content is the hidden meaning.
-Information processing: Cognitive, memories
-Activation-synthesis hypthesis: random


Explain the concepts of tolerance and withdrawal and relate them to drug addiction

Tolerance: when you need more drugs to achieve effects previously experienced at lower doses. Can cause the user to increase the amount of drugs can lead to overdose.
withdrawal: distress that you feel after you stop using the drug. Shows that a person may have a substance disorder


Compare and contrast physical vs. psychological dependence

Physical: involves changes in normal bodily functions.
Psychological: has an emotional need for the drug


What are the different types of drugs?

Depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and marijuana


What are some examples of stimulants?

Affect the sympathetic activity.
ex. Nicotine, caffeine,cocaine, methamphetamine. makes you feel alert and lots of energy.


What are some examples of hallucinogens?

LSD(acid), psilocybin(magic mushroom), DMT(Ayahuasca


What are clinical uses for stimulants?

anesthetic, ADHD, narcolepsy treatment


What are examples of depressants?

Alchohol, opiates like opium, morphine, heroin, codeine.


What do depressants do?

reduce neural activity and other bodily functions.
creates feelings of disinhibition(GABA,Glutamate and dopamine NTs). Blocks excitement. Clinical uses:painkillers.


What is the active ingredient in Marijuana?

THC =Tetrahydrocannabinol


Effects of Marijuana

Relaxation;enhanced sensation; altered cognition.
Memory and motor impairment.


What does marijuana mimic?

endocannabnoids(Anadamid) which increases dopamine but decreases GABA/glutamate


Apply the three levels of influence model to the phenomenon of drug use

1. Biological influences: genetic predisopoitions and variations in neurotransmitter systems
2. Psychological influence: lacking sense of purpose, significant stress and psychological disorders like depression
3. Socio-cultural influences: urban environment, cultural attitude toward drug use and peer infleuences