Ch. 37 Behavioral Adaptations to the Environment Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Ch. 37 Behavioral Adaptations to the Environment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 37 Behavioral Adaptations to the Environment Deck (40):
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Animal Behavior

External observable muscular activity. It is what an animal does when interacting with environment.

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Behavioral Biology

Science of behavior

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What did Karl Von Frisch do?

He pioneered the use of experimental methods in behavior.

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What did Konrad Lorenz do?

The founder. He noted importance of comparing the behavior of various animals by same stimulus

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What did Niko Tinbergen do?

He studied innate behavior and simple learning.

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The immediate explanation for an organism's behavior

Proximate cause

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Evolutionary explanation for an organism's behavior

Ultimate cause

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Scientific search for evolutionary basis of behavior as mechanisms of reproductive success

Behavior ecology

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Behavior that appears to be performed in virtually the same way by all members of a species

Innate Behavior

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A genetically programmed, virtually unchangeable behavioral sequence performed in response to a certain stimulus
- enables to perform vital activities without learning (natural selection)

Fixed Action Patterns

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A stimulus that triggers fixed action patterns

Sign Stimulus

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A behavioral change resulting from experience

Learning

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Habituation

Learning not to response to a repeated stimulus that conveys little/no info
- highly adaptive, focus on important info

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Imprinting

Irreversible and limited to a critical time period in an animal's life; results in strong bond between offspring and parent
- enables rapid learning (any age)

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Associative Learning

Learning that a particular stimulus/response is linked to a reward/punishment

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A type of learning in which arbitrary stimulus is associated with a reward or punishment

Classical Conditioning

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Learning to associate a particular behavioral act with a positive/negative effect

Trial - and - error learning

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Imitation

Learning by observing and mimicking the behavior of others (no critical period)

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Innovation

Ability to respond approximately to a new situation without prior experience
- mainly with primates

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Ascribing human motivation, conscious, awareness or feeling to other animals
- don't know if true/extent

Anthropomorphism

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A biological cycle of 24 hours controlled by a biological clock (under influence of environmental cues)
- a pattern of activity repeated daily
- tested by Stefania Follini
- affects wellbeing, productivity, judgement

Circadian Rythm

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Random movement in response to a stimulus

Kinesis

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Directed movement resulting in an organism's placing itself in a specific position relative to an environmental cue

Orientation Behavior

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Virtually automatic orientation toward or away from a stimulus

Taxis

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Ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information obtained by its sensory receptors

Cognition

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Scientific study of cognition; connection of data process between nerves and behavior
- cognitive maps

Cognitive Ethology

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Representations within nervous systems of spatial relations among objects in envionment

Cognitive Maps

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The regular back and forth movement of animals between two geographic points at particular time
- access to rich food and breeding grounds

Seasonal Migration

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Mechanism that enables an animal to find a particular kind of food efficiently

Search Image

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Feeding behavior that provides max. energy gain with min. energy expense and min. time searching/securing/eating
- low cost/benefit ratio

Optimal foraging

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Any kind of interaction between two or more animals usually of the same species
- Communication
- affects growth/regulation of population and fitness

Social Behavioir

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Confrontational behavior involving a contest waged by threats, displays, or actual combat, which settles disputes over limited resources (food/mates)
- avoid violent combat which would lower fitness

Agonistic Behavior

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Ranking of individuals based on social interactions
- reduce time spent on agonistic behavior for other things

Dominance Hierarchy

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Territorial behavior; area an individual defends and from which other members of the same species are usually excluded
- varies with species, function, resources
- proclaim rights and exclusive access

Territoriality

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Prospective partners perform elaborate courtship rituals to assure same species, opposite gender, primed to mate, and not a threat

Mating Behavior

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Social behavior and social organization depends on this

Signaling

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Behavior that reduces an individual's fitness which increasing the fitness of another individual
- colony of cooperative group

Altruism

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The concept that altruism evolves because it increases the # of copies of a gene common to related organisms
- natural selection

Kin Selection

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A selfless act repaid at a later time by the beneficiary or by another member of the beneficiary's social system (non-relatives)

Reciprocal Altruism

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Sociobiology

Study of evolutionary basis of social behavior
- perpetuated by natural selection