Flashcards in Ch 40 Sonographic Evaluation of the Female Pelvis Deck (32):
The full bladder ________ the bowel and its contained gas from the field of view and _______ the anteflexed uterus slightly so that it is more perpendicular to the transducer angle.
The bladder shape may be helpful because a well-distended bladder typically has a ________ or elongated shape on midline scans.
The ____ vessels can be used as a landmark to identify the lateral adnexal borders.
If pathology is present, documentation of the _______ (Morison's pouch and subphrenic area) and bilateral ______ areas must be obtained.
In transvaginal scanning, it is necessary to advance the transducer slightly, angling _______ to visualize the fundus, and to withdraw slightly, away from the external os, while angling ______ to see the cervix and the rectouterine recess.
These measurements of the uterus and ovaries should documented: ________, __________, _________.
length, width, axial
The thickness of the endometrium should be measured in the ________ plane.
Pelvic muscles may be mistaken for ovaries, fluid collections, or masses. A _______ bilateral arrangement indicates that they are muscles.
Sonographically, sections of the _________ muscle are seen at the posterior lateral corners of the bladder at the level of the vagina and cervix.
The muscle that is best visualized sonographically in a transverse plane with caudal angulation at the most inferior aspect of the bladder is the _________ muscle.
The muscle that are located on either side of the midline posterior to the upper half of the uterine body and fundus are the ________ muscles.
To assess the uterine vessels, the sonographer interrogates just ______ to the cervix and lower uterine segment at the level of the internal os.
A _______ , highly resistive flow pattern in the ovary is shown during the follicular phase of the menstural cycle
At ovulation, the maximum velocity increases and the RI ______
The middle uterine layer is the ________ of the uterus; this layer should have a homogeneous ecotexture with smooth-walled borders.
The ________ of the uterus is hypoechoic and surrounds the relatively echogenic endometrial stripe, creating a subendometrial halo.
calcifications may be seen in the _______ arcuate arteries in postmenopausal women and appear as peripheral linear echos with shadowing.
The body of the uterus is separated from the cervix by the isthmus at the level of the ________ and is identified by narrowing of the canal.
The axis of the uterine body relative to the cervix is referred to as the ______, whereas________ refers to the axis of the cervix relative to the vagina.
The best way to measure the cervical-fundal dimension of the uterus in the longitudinal plane is the ________ technique.
During menstruation (days 1 -4), the ________ canal appears as a hypoechoic central line representing blood and tissue reaching 4 to 8 mm, including the basal layer in this measurement.
As menses progress (day 3 to 7), the hypoechoic echo that represented blood disappears, and the endometrial stripe is a discrete thin _______ line that is usually only 2 to 3 mm long.
In the early proliferative phase (days 5 to 9), the endometrial canal appears as a ________ stripe.
The layer that is seen as a hyperechoic halo encompassing the stripe is the ________ layer
The layer of the endometrium that represents the thin surrounding hyperechoic outermost echo is the ______ layer.
During the _______ (luteal) phase (days 15 to 28), the endometrium is at its greatest thickness and echogenicity with posterior enhancement.
Sonographically, the postmenopausal endometiral complex is seen as a thin _______ line measuring less than 8mm, unless a hormone regimen is being followed.
If the tunes are distended with or surrounded by a sufficient amount of _____, they can be easily outlined by the contrasting fluid.
Typically, the ovary is located just _____ to the uterus and ________ to the internal iliac vessels, which can be used as a landmark to localize the ovary.
The best sonographic marker for the ovary is identification of a _________ , which has the classic appearance of being think walled and anechoic with through-transmission posteriorly.
The posterior cul-de-sac, or _________, is the most posterior and inferior reflection of the peritoneal cavity. It is located between the rectum and the vagina and is known as the pouch of douglas.