Psychodynamic perspective from text book
behaviour is explained as past experiences and motivational forces.
Actions are viewed as stemming from inherited instincts, biological drives and attempts to resolve conflicts between personal needs and social requirements
Psychodynamics is the theory and systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behaviour. It is especially interested in the dynamic relations between conscious motivation and unconscious motivation. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) developed what he called psychodynamics to describe the processes of the mind as flows of psychological energy (Libido) in an organically complex brain.
a scientific approach that limits the study of psychology to measurable or observable behaviour.
The primary tenet of behaviorism, as expressed in the writings of John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and others, is that psychology should concern itself with the observable behavior of people and animals, not with unobservable events that take place in their minds.
concerned with observable behaviour that can be objectively recorded and with the relationships of observable behaviour to environmental stimuli
Behaviourist behaviour pioneered by who
John Watson (1878 – 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. Through his behaviorist approach, Watson conducted research on animal behavior, child rearing, and advertising. In addition, he conducted the controversial "Little Albert" experiment.
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
extended influence of behaviourism by expanding its analyses to the consequences of behaviours
In a June 2002 survey, Skinner was listed as the most influential psychologist of the 20th century.
emphasises an individual's phenomenol world and inherent capacity for making rational choices and developing to maximum potential.(text)
It typically holds that people are inherently good. It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and human potential.(wikipedia)
Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1950s as an alternative to psychodynamic and behaviourist models
Humanistic perspective 2 people
1. Carl Rogers emphasised that individuals have a natural tendency toward psychological growth and health - a process that is aided by the positive regard of those that surround them.
2. Abraham Maslow coined term "self actualisation" to refer to each individual's drive toward the fullest development of his/her potential
stresses human thought and the processes of knowing, such as attending, thinking, remembering, expecting, solving problems, fantasising and consciousness
People act because they think and people think because they are human beings exquisitely equipped to do so
He asserted that even children are able to produce utterances that fall outside the bounds of their previous experience
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
used a series of mental tasks to demonstrate qualitative (quality and not quantity) changes over the course of cognitive development.
To explain children's growing sophistication Piaget made reference to children's inner cognitive states.
He was was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher
identifying causes of behaviour that focuses on the functioning of the genes, the brain, the nervous system and the endocrine system.
Experience and behaviour are largely understood as the result of chemical and electrical activities taking place within and between nerve cells.
stresses the importance of behavioural and mental adaptiveness based on the assumption that mental capabilities evolved over millions of years to serve particular adaptive purposes.
understand the brain processes that underlie behaviour
understand the brain processes that underlie higher cognitive functions in humans
focuses on cross cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behaviour.
A move away from Western based psychology
refers to commitment to respectfully engage with people from different cultures; it includes knowledge, behaviour and attitudes and is a skill that when achieved is behaviourally expressed as the capacity to function effectively in intercultural contexts.