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Flashcards in Ch3-P72-77 Deck (28):

Brain stem?

brain structure that regulates the body's basic life processes.

 It is usually described as including the medulla oblongata , pons and midbrain


Medulla or medulla oblongata? textbook

Region of the brain stem, at the top of the spinal cord, that regulates breathing, waking, blood pressure and heartbeat.

Nerve fibres going from body to brain and vice versa cross over at the medulla, creating the left brain to right body etc.


Medulla? wikipedia


The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic, involuntary functions, such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.


Pons? textbook


Region of brain stem that connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain to one another. Located directly above medulla. Latin word for bridge


Pons? wikipedia

The pons  is a structure located on the brain stem. It is about 2.5 cm in length.

It contains nuclei that relay signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum, along with nuclei that deal primarily with sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture.

The pons is implicated in sleep paralysis, and also plays a role in generating dreams


Reticular formation textbook

Dense network of nerve cell's that act as brain's sentinel (guard).

Region of brain stem that alerts the cerebral cortex (outer brain matter grey matter) to incoming sensory signals and is responsible for maintaining consciousness and awakening from sleep. Crucial role in biological cycles ie wake sleep cycle. Always alert to environment even during sleep which wakes us if changes occur. damage to this area causes coma.


Reticular formation wikipedia

The reticular formation is a region in the brainstem that is involved in multiple tasks such as regulating the sleep-wake cycle and filtering incoming stimuli to discriminate irrelevant background stimuli. It is essential for governing some of the basic functions of higher organisms, and is one of the phylogenetically oldest portions of the brain.


Thalamus textbook

Brain structure that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex. Reticular formation has long fibre tracts that run to the thalamus which operates like switchboard regulating and distributing the information flow between incoming sensory information and and the appropriate area of the cerebral cortex.


Thalamus? wikipedia

Brain chrischan thalamus.jpg

The thalamus (from Greek "inner chamber") is a midline symmetrical structure within the brains of vertebrates including humans, situated between the cerebral cortex and midbrain. Its function includes relaying sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, along with the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.


Cerebellum textbook

Region of brain attached to the brain stem that controls motor coordination, posture and balance and the ability to learn control of body movements.


Cerebellum wikipedia

The cerebellum (Latin for little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control. It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language, and in regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing. It receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine tune motor activity.


limbic system textbook

Region of brain that regulates emotional behaviour, basic motivational urges and memory, as well as major physiological functions.

Does: drives food, drink and reproduction, anger, fear, memory processes, body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar level


limbic system wikipedia

The limbic system (or Paleomammalian brain) is a complex set of brain structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, right under the cerebrum. It includes the hippocampus, amygdalae, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum, limbic cortex and fornix, which seemingly support a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. It appears to be primarily responsible for our emotional life, and has a great deal to do with the formation of memories.


Hippocampus textbook

Part of limpic system that is involved in the acquisition of explicit memory (the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information)


Hippocampus wikipedia

The hippocampus belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. It is a part of the cerebral cortex.

In Alzheimer's disease, the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; memory problems and disorientation appear among the first symptoms. Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation (hypoxia), encephalitis, or medial temporal lobe epilepsy. People with extensive, bilateral hippocampal damage may experience anterograde amnesia—the inability to form or retain new memories.


Amygdala textbook

part of the limbic system that controls emotion, agression and the formation of emotional memory. Damage to amygdala may have calming effect on aggressive people. Damage can also prevent people from seeing emotion in faces. Also have problems with fear and danger.


Amygdala wikipedia



Hypothalamus textbook

brain structure that regulates motivated behaviour (such as eating and drinking) and homeostasis. Hypothalamus also regulates activities of endocrine system


Hypothalamus wikipedia

One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian cycles.



Constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body.


Cerebrum textbook

region of brain that regulates higher cognitive and emotional functions. Two thirds of total brain mass. Outer surface of cerebrum (tenth of inch thick) is called cerebral cortex. Divided in two halves called cerebral hemispheres and two halves are connected by nerve fibres called corpus callosum


Cerebrum wikipedia

With the assistance of the cerebellum, the cerebrum controls all voluntary actions in the body.

It does: movement, sensory processing, olfaction (smell), language and communication, learning and memory


Cerebral cortex

Outer surface of cerebrum


Cerebral hemispheres

Two halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum.


Frontal lobe textbook

Region of brain located above the lateral fissure and in front of the central sulcus; involved in motor control and cognitive activities. Planning, making decisions and setting goals.


Frontal lobe wikipedia

The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex. The dopamine system is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation. Dopamine tends to limit and select sensory information arriving from the thalamus to the fore-brain.


Corpus callosum

Mass of nerve fibres connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebrum


Parietal lobe


Region of brain behind the frontal lobe and above the lateral fissure; contains somatosensory cortex which is main area for sense of touch.

Responsible for sensations of touch, pain and temperature, spatial sense and navigation.