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Flashcards in Ch3-P66-69 Deck (16):

Synaptic cleft?

Is the gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of the next


Receptor molecules?

To complete synaptic transmission, the neurotransmitters attach to receptor molecules embedded in the post synaptic membrane


Neurotransmitters - acetylcholine wikipedia

acts as a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS)

In cardiac tissue acetylcholine neurotransmission has an inhibitory effect, which lowers heart rate. However, acetylcholine also behaves as an excitatory neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junctions in skeletal muscle.



Neurotransmitters - acetylcholine textbook

Alzheimeir's disease memory loss believed to be caused by deterioration of neurons that secrete acetylcholine. Excitatory at junctions between nerves and muscles causing muscles to contract. Many toxins affect synaptic actions of acetylcholine


Neurotransmitters - acetylcholine toxins - textbook

1. Botulinum toxin found in incorrectly preserved food poisons people by preventing release of acetylcholine in respiratory system - called botulism causes death by suffocation

2.Curare Amazon Indian blowdart poison paralyses lung muscles by occupying critical acetylcholine receptors

3. Funnel web spider releases massive amont of neurotransmitters including acetylcholine resulting in muscle twitching, increased heart rate, hypertension and potentially death


Neurotransmitters - GABA textbook

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Used as messenger in as many as a third of all brain synapses. Neurons sensitive to GABA are concentrated in thalamus, hypothalamus and occipital lobes. When GABA levels low can cause anxiety. Anxiety treated with benzodiazepine drugs like Valium or Xanax that increases GABA activity  by letting GABA bind better to postsynaptic receptor molecules


Neurotransmitters - GABA wikipedia

is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.


Neurotransmitters - catecholamines

(3 drugs - dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin)

Are a class of chemical substances that include two important neurotransmitters - dopamine and noradrenaline. Both play prominent roles in psychological disorders such as mood disturbances and schizophrenia. Noradrenalne appears to be involved in some forms of depression. 

Higher than normal levels of dopamine found in people with schizophrenia (see next card)


Neurotransmitters - catecholamines - dopamine (textbook)

higher than normal levels of dopamine cause schizophrenia. Drug that decreases dopamine levels produced symptons of Parkinson's disease a disorder that disrupts motor function. This led to more drug research into schizophrenia and drug treatments for Parkinson's disease.


Neurotransmitters - catecholamines - dopamine wikipedia

Dopamine plays a major role in the brain system that is responsible for reward-driven learning. Every type of reward that has been studied increases the level of dopamine transmission in the brain, and a variety of highly addictive drugs, including stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, act directly on the dopamine system.

Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia both on another card and (ADHD and Restless Leg Syndrome both due to decreased dopamine


Neurotransmitters - catecholamines - noradrenaline wikipedia

Noradrenaline or Norepinephrine is a catecholamine with multiple roles including as a hormone and a neurotransmitter.

the neurotransmitter released from the sympathetic neurons affects the heart. An increase in norepinephrine from the sympathetic nervous system increases the rate of contractions

As a stress hormone, norepinephrine affects parts of the brain, such as the amygdala, where attention and responses are controlled. Along with epinephrine, norepinephrine also underlies the fight-or-flight response, directly increasing heart rate, triggering the release of glucose from energy stores, and increasing blood flow to skeletal muscle. It increases the brain's oxygen supply. It also increases blood pressure


Neurotransmitters - catecholamines - serotonin textbook

Neurons that produce serotonin are located in the brain stem whic is involved in arousal and many autonomic processes. LSD suppresses effects of serotonin neurons. Anti depressant drugs like Prozac enhance action of serotonin preventing it from being removed from the synaptic cleft


Neurotransmitters - catecholamines - serotonin wikipedia

Approximately 90% of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the alimentary canal (gut), where it is used to regulate intestinal movements.[6][7] The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons of the CNS, where it has various functions. These include the regulation of mood, appetite, and sleep. Serotonin also has some cognitive functions, including memory and learning. Modulation of serotonin at synapses is thought to be a major action of several classes of pharmacological antidepressants.

 It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.


 Neurotransmitters - endorphins textbook

A group of chemicals usually classified as neuromodulators. Neuromodulators modifies or modulates activities of the post synaptic neuron. Important role in anxiety, fear, tension, pleasure and pain. Opium and heroin bind to the same receptor sites in the brain


 Neurotransmitters - endorphins wikipedia

Endorphins  are endogenous opioid peptides that function as neurotransmitters. They are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during exercise, excitement, pain, consumption of spicy food, love and orgasm, and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a feeling of well-being.


Neurotransmitters - carbon monoxide and nitric oxide

These gases can also act as neurotransmitters by passing through the receptor cell's outer membrane