Chp12-Whole Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Chp12-Whole > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chp12-Whole Deck (19):
1

Motivation?

the process of starting, directing and maintaining physical and psychological activities; includes mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the vigour and persistence of responses.

2

Drive?

An internal state that arises in response to a disequilibrium in an animal's physiological needs.

3

Homeostasis?

constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body.

4

Incentive?

An external stimulus or reward that motivates behaviour although it does not relate directly to biological needs.

5

Instinct?

A pre-programmed tendency that is essential to a species survival.

6

Social learning theory?

The learning theory that stresses the role of observation and the irritation of behaviours observed in others

7

Hierarchy of needs?

Maslow's view that basic human motives form a hierarchy and that the needs at each level of the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next level can be achieved; these needs progress from basic biological needs to the need for self actualisation.

8

Anorexia nervosa?

An eating disorder in which an individual weighs less than 85 per cent of her or his expected weight but still expresses intense fear of becoming fat.

9

Bulimia nervosa?

An eating disorder characterised by binge eating followed by measures to purge the body of excess calories.

10

binge eating disorder

An eating disorder characterised by out of control binge eating without subsequent purges.

11

Sexual arousal?

the motivational state of excitement and tension brought about by physiological and cognitive reactions to erotic stimuli.

12

Parental investment?

the time and energy parents must spend raising their offspring.

13

Sexual script

a socially learned program of sexual responsiveness

14

Date rape

unwanted sexual violation by a social acquaintance in the context of a consensual dating situation.

15

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A projective test in which pictures of ambigious scenes are presented to an individual, who is encouraged to generate stories about them.

16

Need for Achievement (n Ach)?

An assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range of behaviour and thinking.

17

Attribution?

A judgment about the causes of outcomes.

 

18

Organisational Psychologist?

A psychologist who studies various aspects of the human work environment, such as communication among employees, socialisation or enculturation of workers, leadership, job satisfaction, stress and burnout, and overall quality of life

19

equity theory

A cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated to maintain fair and equitable relationships with other relevant persons; also, a model that postulates that equitable relationships are those in which the participants' outcomes are porportional to their inputs.