Flashcards in Ch.1: The Microbial World and You Deck (38):
minute living things that individually are usually to small to be seen with the unaided eye.
7 types of microorganisms are:
Only a minority of microorganisms are _______, Disease-producing.
Scientific nomenclature assigns each organism two names: the _____ is the first name is always capitalized and the ______ follows and is not capitalized. Both names are italicized and underlined.
Genus (genera) and Specific epithet (species)
5 Key Characteristics of Bacteria
-simple-celled (unicellular) PROKARYOTES
-enclosed in cells walls (peptidoglycan carb-protein)
4 Key Characteristics of Archaea
- cell walls lacks peptidogylcan
-found in extreme environments
-Divided into three main groups
The three main groups of Archaea are:
-methanogens: produce methane gas
-halophiles: live in extreme salt loving environment
-thermophiles: hot sulforous water
4 Key Characteristics of Fungi:
-uni/multicellular. Reproduce asexually or sexually
-cell walls composed of CHITIN
-obtain nourishment by absorbing solutions of organic material
5 key Characteristics of Protozoa:
-UNICELLULAR EURKARYOTIC MICROBES
-move by pseudopods, flagella, or cillia
-live either as free entities or as parasites
-absorb or ingest organic compounds from their environment
-some photosynthetic. Reproduce sexually/ asexually
3 key Characteristics of Algae:
- both asexual/ sexual
-cell wall contain of cellulose
5 Key Characteristics of Viruses:
-So small can only be seen through an electric microscope
-lipid membrane, core made of nucleic acid and dna/rna
-can reproduce only bu using the cellular machinery of other organisms.
-considered not to be living
-multicellular animal parasites.
- not considered microorganisms but important in medical
-major groups of parasites are flatworms and round worms
The 3 Main Domains are:
-BACTERA (cell wall that contain peptidoglycan)
-ARCHAEA (cell walls that lack peptidoglycan)
-EUKARYA (protist, fungi, plants, and animals)
The ____ ________: the theory that all living things are composed of cells. FOUNDER ROBERT HOOKE.
______ ____ _________ was the first person to actually observe live microorganisms through the magnifying lenses of more than 400 microscropes he constructed. He called them "animalcules"
Anton Van Leeuvenhoek
__________ __________: many scientist and philosophers believed that some forms of life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter,
_________: the claim that living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells, FOUNDER RUDOLF VIRCHOW
Importance of Louis Pasteur's work consisted of :
- PROOF THAT MICROORGANISMS ARE PRESENT IN THE AIR AND CAN CONTAMINATE STERILE SOLUTIONS
- proof that microOG can be present in nonliving matter
- creation of ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE
Techniques that prevent contamination by unwanted microorganisms. STANDARD PRACTICE
__________: use to make wine and beer
__________: heat the beer and wine just enough to kill most of the bacteria
____ ______ _______: Microorganisms might cause disease.
Germ theory disease
Importance of LISTER
-applied the GTD to medical procedures. PHENOL (carbonic acid) kills bacteria. so he began treating surgical wounds with solution. REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF INFECTIONS AND DEATH
Importance of KOCH
- Anthrax (sheep) ISOLATED BACTERIA, KOCH POSTULATES.
KOCH POSTULATES ARE:
sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease
Importance of Edward Jenner:
- cowpox blisters innocolate into 8 year old boy. became midly sick but never contracted small pox. VACCINATION, used a viral living agent to produce immunity
________: treatment of disease by using chemical substances
Chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi to act against other microorganisms.
chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the laboratory
_____ _______: founded salvarsan, an arsenic derivative effective against syphillis
______ ________: discovered the first antibiotics by accident.PENICILLIN
2 Major problems of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs:
1. Many antimicrobrial chemicals are TOO TOXIC, kill the pathogens yet also damage the infected host
2. EMERGENCE AND SPREAD OF NEW STRAINS of microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics
__________: the study of bacteria, began with VAN Leeuwenhoek's first examination of tooth scraping
Study of fungi, includes medical, agricultural and ecological branches
the study of protozoa and parasitic worms
________: the study of all of organisms gene have allowed scientist to classify bacteria, fungi according to their genetic relationship with other bacteria, fungi and protozoa.
The study of immunity