Ch.1: The Microbial World and You Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.1: The Microbial World and You Deck (38):
1

minute living things that individually are usually to small to be seen with the unaided eye.

Microorgansims

2

7 types of microorganisms are:

-Bacteria
-Archae
-Fungi
-Virus
-Protozoa
-Algae
-Helminths

3

Only a minority of microorganisms are _______, Disease-producing.

Pathogenic

4

Scientific nomenclature assigns each organism two names: the _____ is the first name is always capitalized and the ______ follows and is not capitalized. Both names are italicized and underlined.

Genus (genera) and Specific epithet (species)

5

5 Key Characteristics of Bacteria

-simple-celled (unicellular) PROKARYOTES
-enclosed in cells walls (peptidoglycan carb-protein)
-Binary fission
-photosynthesis
-everywhere

6

4 Key Characteristics of Archaea

-PROKARYOTIC CELLS
- cell walls lacks peptidogylcan
-found in extreme environments
-Divided into three main groups

7

The three main groups of Archaea are:

-methanogens: produce methane gas
-halophiles: live in extreme salt loving environment
-thermophiles: hot sulforous water

8

4 Key Characteristics of Fungi:

-EUKARYOTIC CELLS
-uni/multicellular. Reproduce asexually or sexually
-cell walls composed of CHITIN
-obtain nourishment by absorbing solutions of organic material

9

5 key Characteristics of Protozoa:

-UNICELLULAR EURKARYOTIC MICROBES
-move by pseudopods, flagella, or cillia
-live either as free entities or as parasites
-absorb or ingest organic compounds from their environment
-some photosynthetic. Reproduce sexually/ asexually

10

3 key Characteristics of Algae:

-PHOTOSYNTHETIC EUKARYOTES
- both asexual/ sexual
-cell wall contain of cellulose

11

5 Key Characteristics of Viruses:

-So small can only be seen through an electric microscope
-ACELLULAR
-lipid membrane, core made of nucleic acid and dna/rna
-can reproduce only bu using the cellular machinery of other organisms.
-considered not to be living

12

Helminths are:

-multicellular animal parasites.
- not considered microorganisms but important in medical
- EUKARYOTES
-major groups of parasites are flatworms and round worms

13

The 3 Main Domains are:

-BACTERA (cell wall that contain peptidoglycan)
-ARCHAEA (cell walls that lack peptidoglycan)
-EUKARYA (protist, fungi, plants, and animals)

14

The ____ ________: the theory that all living things are composed of cells. FOUNDER ROBERT HOOKE.

Cell Theory

15

______ ____ _________ was the first person to actually observe live microorganisms through the magnifying lenses of more than 400 microscropes he constructed. He called them "animalcules"

Anton Van Leeuvenhoek

16

__________ __________: many scientist and philosophers believed that some forms of life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter,

Spontaneous generation

17

_________: the claim that living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells, FOUNDER RUDOLF VIRCHOW

Biogenesis

18

Importance of Louis Pasteur's work consisted of :

- PROOF THAT MICROORGANISMS ARE PRESENT IN THE AIR AND CAN CONTAMINATE STERILE SOLUTIONS
- proof that microOG can be present in nonliving matter
- creation of ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE

19

ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE:

Techniques that prevent contamination by unwanted microorganisms. STANDARD PRACTICE

20

__________: use to make wine and beer

Fermentation

21

__________: heat the beer and wine just enough to kill most of the bacteria

Pasteurization

22

____ ______ _______: Microorganisms might cause disease.

Germ theory disease

23

Importance of LISTER

-applied the GTD to medical procedures. PHENOL (carbonic acid) kills bacteria. so he began treating surgical wounds with solution. REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF INFECTIONS AND DEATH

24

Importance of KOCH

- Anthrax (sheep) ISOLATED BACTERIA, KOCH POSTULATES.

25

KOCH POSTULATES ARE:

sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease

26

Importance of Edward Jenner:

- cowpox blisters innocolate into 8 year old boy. became midly sick but never contracted small pox. VACCINATION, used a viral living agent to produce immunity

27

________: treatment of disease by using chemical substances

Chemotheraphy

28

Chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi to act against other microorganisms.

antibiotics

29

chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the laboratory

synthethic drugs

30

_____ _______: founded salvarsan, an arsenic derivative effective against syphillis

Paul Ehrlich

31

______ ________: discovered the first antibiotics by accident.PENICILLIN

Alexander Fleming

32

2 Major problems of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs:

1. Many antimicrobrial chemicals are TOO TOXIC, kill the pathogens yet also damage the infected host
2. EMERGENCE AND SPREAD OF NEW STRAINS of microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics

33

__________: the study of bacteria, began with VAN Leeuwenhoek's first examination of tooth scraping

bacteriology

34

Study of fungi, includes medical, agricultural and ecological branches

MYCOLOGY

35

the study of protozoa and parasitic worms

PARASITOLOGY

36

________: the study of all of organisms gene have allowed scientist to classify bacteria, fungi according to their genetic relationship with other bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

Genomies

37

The study of immunity

immunology

38

the study of viruses, WENDEL STANLEY demonstrated that the organisms called TMV was fundamentally different from other microbes. The study of viral structure and chemistry

Virology