Ch.8/9 DNA Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Ch.8/9 DNA > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.8/9 DNA Deck (15):
1

DNA Replication (DNA Duplication/DNA doubling)

  • DNA Negative charge
  • Hydrophilic

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2

​Nucleotide

  • Monomer
  • Deoxyribonucleotide
  • contains deoxyribose sugar
  • 1 of the 4 bases (A,T,C.G)
  • Phosphate  group (5 prime phosphate)
  • 3 Prime Hydroxyl (OH)

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3

Nucleic Acid

 

  • Polymer
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

4

DNA

  • Double stranded molecule (double helix)
  • antiparallel 
    • 5' end 
    • 3' end
  • DNA Synthesis always 5' ---> 3' direction
  • sugar-phosphate backbone 

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5

DNA polymerase

  • enzyme that builds a DNA polymer
  • polymerization
  • Can remove RNA primers and replace it with DNA molecules

6

ORI

  • Origin of replication
  • Replication bubble
  • Bidirectional Replication
    • ​​•  allows more DNA to be synthesized in less time because there are two replication forks 

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7

DNA Helicase

Unwind and separate 2 strands of DNA

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8

RNA Primase

  • enzyme that makes an RNA Primer
    • Short sequence of ribonucleotides (10-15)

9

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  • Leading strand = continuous synthesis 
  • Old DNA strand = template
  • new strand = leading strand
  • Lagging strand = Discontinuous synthesis

10

Single stranded binded protein

  • keeps DNA in single strand
  • DNA polymerase removes

11

DNA Ligase

Connects the Okazaki fragments together

12

Okazaki Fragments

  • are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication

13

Proofreading

  • errors in DNA replication = random mutations
  • occurs at low frequency
    • 1 in every 10^8 - 10^11
  • Errors are corrected by the proofreading activities of DNA polymerase I and III

14

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

  • replication in a tube
  • requires template DNA, DNA Polymerase, primers and nucleotides
  • a method to amplify (make many copies of a DNA sample) so that further analysis can be done on the DNA sample
    1. DNA Polymerase
    2. Heat (bypass DNA helicase)
    3. Primer
    4. Deoxyribonucleotides
    5. DNA Template

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15

Sanger DNA Sequencing

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  • Sanger sequencing is a method of DNA sequencing based on the selective incorporation of chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides by DNA polymerase during in vitro DNA replication

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